Advertisement

Linkage Relationships and Gene Mapping of Human Blood Group Loci

  • Marion Lewis
  • Teresa Zelinski
Part of the Blood Cell Biochemistry book series (BLBI, volume 6)

Abstract

This chapter will detail the process and progress in blood group gene mapping and mention the associated problems that justify the Human Gene Mapping Workshop requirement that all gene assignments to specific chromosomes be considered provisional until confirmation by a second data set. In doing so, the terminologies employed will conform to the recommendations of the International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens, hereafter referred to as ISBTWP (Lewis et al., 1990, 1991a), the Human Gene Mapping Nomenclature Committee, hereafter referred to as HGMNC (Shows et al., 1987), and the International Standard Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN, 1978).

Keywords

Linkage Group Blood Group Recombination Fraction Blood Group Antigen Linkage Relationship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allderdice, P. W., Kaita, H., Lewis. M., McAlpine, P. J., Wong, P., Anderson, J., and Giblett, E. R., 1986. Segregation of marker loci in families with an inherited paracentric inversion of chromosome 9. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 39: 612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anstee, D. J., 1981. The blood group MNS-active sialoglycoproteins, Semin. Hematol. 18:13–31. Anstee, D. J., Ridgwell, K., Tanner, M. J. A., Daniels, G. L., and Parsons, S. F., 1984, IndividualsGoogle Scholar
  3. lacking the Gerbich blood-group antigen have alterations in the human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins 3 and y, Biochem. J. 221:97–104.Google Scholar
  4. Arwert, F., Porck, H. J., Frater-Schroder, M., Brahe, C., Geurts van Kessel, A., Westerveld, A., Meera Khan, P., Zang, K., Frants, R. R., Kortbeek, H. T., and Ericksson, A. W., 1986, Assignment of human transcobalamin II (TC2) to chromosome 22 using somatic cell hybrids and monosomic meningioma cells, Hum. Genet. 74: 378–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avent, N. D., Ridgwell, K., Tanner, M. J. A., and Anstee, D. J., 1990, cDNA cloning of a 30 kDa erythrocyte membrane protein associated with Rh (Rhesus) blood group antigen expression, Biochem. J. 271: 821–825.Google Scholar
  6. Bartels, C. F., Zelinski, T., and Lockridge, O., 1993, Mutation at codon 322 in the human acetylcholinesterase gene (ACHE) accounts for YT blood group polymorphism, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 52: 928–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertelson, C. J., Pogo, A. O., Chadhuri, A., Marsh, W. L., Redman, C. M., Banerjee, D., Symmans, W. E., Simon, T., Frey, D., and Kunkel, L. M., 1988, Localization of the McLeod locus (XK) within Xp21 by deletion analysis. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 42: 703–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bloy. C., Blanchard, D., Lambin, P., Goosens, D., Rouger, P., Salmon, C., and Cartron, J.-P., 1987, Human monoclonal antibody against Rh(D) antigen: Partial characterization of the Rh(D) polypeptide from human erythrocytes, Blood 69: 1491–1497.Google Scholar
  9. Blumenfeld, O. O., and Adamany, A. M., 1978, Structural polymorphism within the amino-terminal region of MM, NN and MN glycoproteins (glycophorins) of the human erythrocyte membrane, Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 2727–2731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Botstein, D., White, R. L., Skolnick, M., and Davis, R. W., 1980, Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 32: 314–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buck, D. W., and Bodmer, W. F., 1976, Serological identification of an X-linked human cell surface antigen, SA-X, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 16: 376–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chalmers, J. N. M., and Lawler, S. D., 1953, Data on linkage in man: Elliptocytosis and blood groups. I. Families I and 2, Ann. Eugen. 17: 267–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chérif-Zahar, B., Bloy, C., Le Van Kim, C., Blanchard, D., Bailly, P., Hermand, P., Salmon, C., Cartron, J.-P., and Colin, Y., 1990, Molecular cloning and protein structure of a human blood group Rh polypeptide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 6243–6247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chérif-Zahar, B., Mattei, M. G., Le Van Kim, C., Bailly, P., Cartron, J.-P., and Colin, Y., 1991, Localization of the human Rh blood group gene structure to chromosome region 1p34.3–1p36.1 by in situ hybridization, Hum. Genet. 86: 398–400.Google Scholar
  15. Chodirker, B. N., Evans, J. A., Lewis, M., Coghlan, G., Belcher, E., Philipps, S., Seargeant, L. E., Sus, C., and Greenberg, C. R., 1987, Infantile hypophosphatasia—Linkage with the RH locus, Genomics 1: 280–282.Google Scholar
  16. Chown, B., Lewis, M., and Kaita. H., 1965, An anomaly of inheritance in the MNSs blood groups, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 17: 9–13.Google Scholar
  17. Chown, B., Lewis, M., and Kaita, H., 1971, The Rh system: An anomaly of inheritance, probably due to mutation, Vox Sang. 21: 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coghlan, G., Kaita, H., Belcher, E., Philipps, S., and Lewis, M., 1989, Evidence for genetic linkage between the KEL and YT blood group loci, Vox Sang. 57: 88–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colin, Y., Rahuel, C., London, J., Romeo, P. H., d’Auriol, L., Galibert, F., and Cartron, J.-P., 1986, Isolation of cDNA clones and complete amino acid sequence of human erythrocyte glycophorin C, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 229–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Colin, Y., Chérif-Zahar, B., Le Van Kim, C., Raynal, V., Van Huffel, V., and Cartron, J.-P., 1991, Genetic basis of the Rh D-positive and Rh D-negative blood group polymorphism as determined by Southern analysis, Blood 78: 2747–2752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cook, P. J. L., 1965, The Lutheran–secretor recombination fraction in man: A possible sex-difference, Ann. Hum. Genet. 28: 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook, P. J. L., Robson, E. B., Buckton, K. E., Slaughter, C. A., Gray, J. E., Blank, C. E., James, F. E., Ridler, M. A. C., Insley, J., and Hultén, M., 1978, Segregation of ABO, AKI and ACON, in families with abnormalities of chromosome 9, Ann. Hum. Genet. 41: 365–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daar, A. S., and Fabre, J. W., 1981, Demonstration with monoclonal antibodies of an unusual mononuclear cell infiltrate and loss of normal epithelial membrane antigens in human breast carcinomas, Lancet 2: 434–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daar, A. S., and Fabre, J. W., 1983, The membrane antigen of human colorectal cancer cells: Demonstration with monoclonal antibodies of heterogeneity within and between tumours and of anomalous expression of HLA-DR, Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol. 19: 209–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dahr, W., 1981, Serology, genetics and chemistry of the MNSs blood group system, Rev. Fr. Transfus. Immunohematol. 24: 85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dalchau, R., Kirkley, J., and Fabre. J. W., 1980, Monoclonal antibody to a human brain-granulocyteT-lymphocyte antigen probably homologous to the W3/13 antigen of the rat, Eur. J. Immunol. 10: 745–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Daniels, G. L., 1990, Evidence that the Auberger blood group antigens are located on the Lutheran glycoproteins, Vox Sang. 58: 56–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Daniels, G. L., Tippett, P., Palmer, D. K., Miller, Y. E., Geyer. D., and Jones, C., 1987, MER2: A red cell polymorphism defined by monoclonal antibodies, Vox Sang. 52: 107–110.Google Scholar
  29. de la Chapelle, A., Vuopio, P., Sanger, R., and Teesdale, P., 1975, Monosomy 7 and the Colton blood groups, Lancet 2: 817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Donahue, R. P., Bias, W., Renwick, J. H., and McKusick, V. A., 1968, Probable assignment of the Duffy blood group locus to chromosome 1 in man, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61: 949–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eiberg, H., Mohr, J., Staub Nielsen, L., and Simonsen, N., 1983, Genetics and linkage relationships of the C3 polymorphism: Discovery of C3: Se linkage and assignment of LES-C3-DM-Se-PEPD-Lu synteny to chromosome 19, Clin. Genet. 24: 159–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eiberg, H., Moller, N., Mohr. J., and Nielsen, L. S., 1986, Linkage of transcobalamin II (TC2) to the P blood group system and assignment to chromosome 22, Clin. Genet. 29: 354–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Falk, C. T., Martin, M. D., Walker, M. E., Chen, T., Rubinstein, P., and Allen, F. H., Jr., 1979, Family data suggesting a linkage between MN and GC, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 25: 152.Google Scholar
  34. Ferguson-Smith, M. A., Sanger. R., Tippett, P., Aitken, D. A., and Boyd. E., 1982, A familial t(X;Y) translocation which assigns the Xg blood group locus to the region Xp22.3—pter. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 32: 273–274.Google Scholar
  35. Fisher, R. A., Povey, S., Babrow, M., Solomon, E., Boyd. Y., and Carritt, B., 1977, Assignment of the DIA, locus to chromosome 22, Ann. Hum. Genet. 41: 150–155.Google Scholar
  36. Francke, U., and George, D. L., 1978, Precise mapping of genes for phosphoglucomutase-1 and uridine monophosphate kinase on the short arm of chromosome 1, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 22: 384–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Francke, U., and Oliver, N., 1978, Quantitative analysis of high resolution trypsin—Giemsa bands on human prometaphase chromosomes, Hum. Genet. 45: 137–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Francke, U., Ochs, H. D., de Martinville. B., Giacalone, J., Lindgren, V., Disteche, C., Pagon, R. A., Hofker, M. H., van Ommen, G.-J. B., Pearson, P. L., and Wedgwood, R. J., 1985, Minor Xp21 chromosome deletion in a male associated with expression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, chronic granulomatous disease, retinitis pigmentosa and McLeod syndrome, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 37: 250–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gall, J. G., and Pardue, M. L., 1969, Formation and detection of RNA—DNA hybrid molecules in cytological preparations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 63: 378–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Geitvik, G. A., HOyheim, B., Gedde-Dahl, T., Grzeschik, K. H., Lothe, R., Tomter, H., and Olaisen, B., 1987, The Kidd (JK) blood group locus assigned to chromosome 18 by close linkage to a DNARFLP, Hum. Genet. 77: 205–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. German, J., Walker, M. E., Stiefel, F. H., and Allen, F. H., 1968, MN blood-group locus: Data concerning the possible chromosomal location, Science 162: 1014–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Getman, D. K., Eubanks, J. H., Camp, S., Evans. G. A., and Taylor, P., 1992, The human gene encoding acetylcholinesterase is located on the long arm of chromosome 7, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 51: 170–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Giles, C. M., Gedde-Dahl, T., Jr., Robson, E. B., Thorsby, E., Olaisen, B., Amason, A., KissmeyerNielsen, F., and Schreuder, I., 1976, Re (Rodgers) and the HLA region: Linkage and associations, Tissue Antigens 8: 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodall, H. B., Hendry, D. W. W., Lawler, S. D., and Stephen, S. A., 1953, Data on linkage in man: Elliptocytosis and blood groups. II. Family 3, Ann. Eugen. 17: 272–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goodfellow, P. N., Jones, E. A., van Heyningen, V., Solomon, E., Bobrow, M., Miggiano, V., and Bodmer, W. F., 1975, The 132-microglobulin gene is on chromosome 15 and not in the HLA region, Nature 254: 267–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goodfellow, P. N., Banting, G., Wiles, M. V., Tunnacliffe, A., Parkar, M., Solomon, E., Dalchau, R., and Fabre, J. W., 1982. The gene MIC4, which controls expression of the antigen defined by monoclonal antibody F10.44.2 is on human chromosome 11, Eur. J. Immunol. 8: 659–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harris, H., Hopkinson, D. A., and Robson, E. B., 1974, The incidence of rare alleles determining electrophoretic variants: Data on 43 enzyme loci in man, Ann. Hum. Genet. 37: 237–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haynes, B. F., Harden, E. A., Telen, M. J., Hemler, M. E., Straminger, J. L., Parker, T. J., Scearce, R. M., and Eisenbarth, G. S., 1983, Differentiation of human T lymphocytes. I. Acquisition of a novel human cell surface protein (p80) during normal intrathymic T cell maturation, J. Immunol. 131: 1195–1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hilden, J.-O., Shaw. M.-A., Whitehouse. D. B., Montiero, M., and Tippett. P., 1985, Linkage information from nine more Radin families. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 40: 650–651.Google Scholar
  50. Hopkinson, D. A., Spencer, N., and Harris, H., 1963, Red cell acid phosphatase variant: A new human polymorphism, Nature 199: 969–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huebner, K., Palumbo, A. P., Isobe. M., Kozak. C. A., Monaco, S., Rovera, G., Croce, C. M., and Curtis, P. J., 1985. The alpha-spectrin gene is on chromosome 1 in mouse and man, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 3790–3793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. ISCN, 1978, An international system for human cytogenetic nomenclature, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 21: 309–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. James, J., Stiles, R., Boyce. F., and Wright, J., 1976, The HL-A type of Rg(a—) individuals, Vox Sang. 30: 214–216.Google Scholar
  54. Jeffreys, A. J., Royle, N. J., Wilson, V., and Wong, Z., 1988, Spontaneous mutation rates to new length alleles at tandem-repetitive hypervariable loci in human DNA. Nature 332: 278–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, K. W., 1970, The chromosomal and nuclear location of mouse satellite DNA in individual cells, Nature 225: 912–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Keats, B., Ott, J., and Conneally, M., 1989. Report of the committee on linkage and gene order, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 51: 459–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kohler, G., and Milstein, C., 1975, Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity, Nature 256: 496–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Korenberg, J. R., and Engels, W. R., 1978, Base ratio, DNA content, and quinacrine brightness of human chromosomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 3382–3386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee, S., Zambas, E. D., Marsh, W. L., and Redman, C. M., 1991, Molecular cloning and primary structure of Kell blood group protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 6353–6357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lee, S., Zambas, E. D., Marsh, W. L., and Redman, C. M., 1993, The human Kell blood group gene maps to chromosome 7q33 and its expression is restricted to erythroid cells, Blood. 81: 2804–2809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Leppert, M., Ferrell, R., Kambok, M. I., Beasley, J., O’Connell, P., Lathrop. M., Lalouel, J. M., and White. R., 1987, Linkage of the polymorphic protein markers F13B, CIS, CIR and blood group antigen Kidd in CEPH reference families. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 46: 647.Google Scholar
  62. Le Van Kim, C., Mouro, I., Chérif-Zahar, B., Raynal, V., Cherrier, C., Cartron, J.-P., and Colin, Y., 1992, Molecular cloning and primary structure of the human blood group RhD polypeptide, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 10925–10929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewis, M., and Kaita, H., 1979, Genetic linkage between the Radin and Rh blood group loci, Vox Sang. 37: 286–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., and Chown, B., 1976, Genetic linkage between the human blood group loci Rh and Sc, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 28: 619–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., Chown, B., Giblett, E. R., and Anderson, J. E., 1977, Relative positions of chromosome 1 loci Fy, PGMI, Sc, UMPK, Rh, PGD and ENO1 in man, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 19: 695–709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., Philipps, S., Giblett, E. R., Anderson, J. E., McAlpine. P. J., and Nickel, B., 1980, The position of the Radin blood group locus in relation to other chromosome 1 loci, Ann. Hum. Genet. 44: 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lewis, M., Kaita. H., Philipps, S., Giblett, E. R., and Anderson, J. E., 1983, Genetic linkage data for the Dombrock blood group locus relative to chromosome 1 and chromosome 4 loci, Ann. Hum. Genet. 47: 49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., Philipps, S., Coghlan, G., McAlpine, P. J., Coopland, G. R., and Woods, R. A., 1987, The LW:C3 recombination fraction in female meioses, Ann. Hum. Genet. 51: 201–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis. M., Kaita, H., Coghlan, G., Philipps, S., Belcher, E., McAlpine, P. J., Coopland, G. R., and Woods, R. A., 1988, The chromosome 19 linkage group LDLR, C3, LW, APOC2, LU, SE in man, Ann. Hum. Genet. 52: 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lewis, M., Anstee. D. J., Bird, G. W. G., Brodheim, E., Cartron, J.-P., Contreras, M., Crookston, M. C., Dahr, W., Daniels, G. L., Engelfriet, C. P., Giles, C. M., Issitt, P. D., Jorgensen, J., Kornstad, L., Lubenko, A., Marsh, W. L., McCreary, J., Moore, B. P. L., Morel, P., Moulds, J. J., Nevanlinna, H., Nordhagen, R., Okubo, Y., Rosenfield, R. E., Rouger, P., Rubinstein, P., Salmon, C., Seidl, S., Sistonen, P., Tippett, P., Walker, R. H., Woodfield, G., and Young, S., 1990, Blood group terminology, 1990. From the ISBT Working Party on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens, Vox Sang. 58: 152–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis, M., Anstee, D. J., Bird, G. W. G., Brodheim, E., Cartron, J.-P., Contreras, M., Dahr, W., Daniels, G. L., Engelfriet, C. P., Issitt, P. D., Jorgensen, J., Kornstad, L., Lubenko, A., McCreary, J., Morel, P., Moulds, J. J., Nevanlinna, H., Nordhagen, R., Okubo, Y., Pehta, J., Rouger, P., Rubinstein, P., Salmon, C., Seidl, S., Sistonen, P., Tippett, P., Walker, R. H., Woodfield, G., Young, S., and Zelinski, T., 1991a, ISBT Working Party on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens: Los Angeles Report, Vox Sang. 61: 158–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., Philipps, S., and McAlpine, P. J., 1991b, The low-incidence red cell antigen Wry: Genetic studies, Transfusion 31: 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McAlpine, P. J., Kaita, H., and Lewis, M., 1978, Is the DIAL locus linked to the P blood group locus? Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 22: 629–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McAlpine, P. J., Shows, T. B., Boucheix, C., Huebner, M., and Anderson, W. A., 1991, The 1991 catalog of mapped genes and report of the nomenclature committee. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 58: 5102.Google Scholar
  75. McAlpine, P. J., Coopland, G., Guy, C., James, S., Komarnicki, L., MacDonald, M., Lewis, M., Philipps, S., Coghlan, G., Kaita, H., Cox, D.W., Guinto, E. R., and MacGillivray, R., 1989, Mapping the genes for erythrocyte alpha-spectrin 1 (SPTAI) and coagulation factor V (F5), Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 51: 1042.Google Scholar
  76. MacGeoch, C., Mitchell. C. J., Carritt, B., Avent, N. D., Ridgwell, K., Tanner, M. J. A., and Spun, N. K., 1992, Assignment of the chromosomal locus of the human 30-kDal Rh (Rhesus) blood groupantigen-related protein (Rh30A) to chromosome region 1p36.13-p34, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 59: 261–263.Google Scholar
  77. McKusick, V. A., and Edwards, J. H., 1979, Report of the committee on unassigned linkage groups, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 25: 74–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mann, J. D., Cahan, A., Gelb, A. G., Fisher, N., Hamper, J., Tippett, P., Sanger, R., and Race. R. R., 1962, A sex-linked blood group, Lancet 1:8–10.Google Scholar
  79. Marsh, W. L., 1978. Linkage relationships of the Xg and Xk loci, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 22: 531–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Marsh, W. L., Chaganti, R. S. K., Gardner, F. H., Mayer, K., Nowell, P. C., and German, J., 1974, Mapping human autosomes: Evidence supporting assignment of Rhesus to the short arm of chromosome No. 1, Science 183: 966–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marsh, W. L., Taswell, H. F., Oyen, R., Nichols, M. E., Vergera, M. S., and Pineda, A. A., 1975, Kx antigen of the Kell system and its relationship to chronic granulomatous disease: Evidence that the Kx gene is X-linked, Transfusion 15: 527.Google Scholar
  82. Mattei, M. G., Colin, Y., Le Van Kim, C., Mattei, J. F., and Cartron, J.-P., 1986, Localization of the gene for human erythrocyte glycophorin C to chromosome 2g14-q21, Hum. Genet. 74: 420–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Middleton, J., Crookston, M. C., Falk, J. A., Robson, E. B., Cook. P. J. L., Batchelor, J. R., Bodmer, J., Ferrara, G. B., Festenstein, J. A., Harris, R., Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F., Lawler, S. D., Sachs, J. A., and Wolf, E., 1974, Linkage of Chido and HL-A, Tissue Antigens 4: 366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mikkelsen, M., Jacobsen, P., and Henningsen, K., 1977, Possible localization of Gc-system on chromosome 4: Loss of long arm 4 associated with father-child incompatibility within the Gc-system, Hum. Hered. 27: 105–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mohr, J., 1951, A search for linkage between the Lutheran blood group and other hereditary characters, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 28: 207–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Molthan, L., 1985, Unpublished data submitted to the ISBTWP and referred to in Lewis et al. (1990). Morton, N. E., 1955, Sequential tests for the detection of linkage, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 7: 277–318.Google Scholar
  87. Morton, N. E., 1956, The detection and estimation of linkage between the genes for elliptocytosis and the Rh blood type, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 8: 80–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Moulds, J. M., Nickells, M. W., Moulds, J. J., Brown, M. C., and Atkinson, J. P., 1991, The C3b/ C4b receptor is recognized by the Knops, McCoy, Swain-Langley, and York blood group antisera, J. Exp. Med. 173: 1159–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moulds, J. M., Moulds, J. J., Brown. M., and Atkinson, J. P. 1992, Antiglobulin testing for CR1related (Knops/McCoy/Swain-Langley/York) blood group antigens: Negative and weak reactions are caused by variable expression of CR1, Vox Sang. 62: 230–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Myal, Y., Gregory, C., Wang, H., Hamerton, J. L., and Shiu, R. P. C., 1989, The gene for prolactininducible protein (PIP), uniquely expressed in exocrine organs, maps to chromosome 7, Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 15: 265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nabholz, M., Miggiano, V., and Bodmer, W. F., 1969, Genetic analysis with human—mouse somatic cell hybrids, Nature 223: 358–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. NIH/CEPH Collaborative Mapping Group, 1992, A comprehensive genetic linkage map of the human genome, Science 258: 67–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Noades, J. E., Corney, G., Cook, P. J. L., Putt. W., King, J., Fisher, R. A., Spowart, G., Lee, M., and Bowell, P. J., 1979, The Scianna blood group lies distal to uridine monophosphate kinase on chromosome 1p, Ann. Hum. Genet. 43: 121–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Neill, G. J., Yang, S. Y., Tegoli, J., Berger, R., and Dupont B., 1978, Chido and Rodgers blood groups are distinct antigenic components of human complement C4, Nature 273: 668–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Oriol, R., Danilovs. J., and Hawkins, B. R., 1981, A new genetic model proposing that the Se gene is a structural gene closely linked to the H gene, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 33: 421–431.Google Scholar
  96. Oriol, R., LePendu, J., Bernez, L., Lambert. F., Dalix, A. M., and Hawkins, B. R., 1984, International cooperative study confirming close linkage between H and Se, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 37: 564.Google Scholar
  97. Palmer, D. K., Miller, Y. E., Geyer, D., Jones, C., Daniels, G. L., and Tippett, P., 1985. MER2, a new human red cell polymorphism controlled by a locus on chromosome 11, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 40: 720.Google Scholar
  98. Parsons, S. F., Mallinson, G., Judson, P. A., Anstee, D. J., Tanner, M. J. A., and Daniels, G. L., 1987, Evidence that the Lu° blood group antigen is located on red cell membrane glycoproteins of 85 and 78 kd, Transfusion 27: 61–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patau, K., 1960, The identification of individual chromosomes, especially in man, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 12: 250–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Povey, S., Slaughter, C. A., Wilson, D. E., Gormley, I. P., Buckton, K. E., Perry, P., and Bobrow, M., 1976, Evidence for the assignment of the loci AK,, AK 3 and ACON, to chromosome 9 in man, Ann. Hum. Genet. 39: 413–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Povey, S., Falk, C., and Smith, M., 1991, Report of the committee on the genetic constitution of chromosome 9. 1991, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 58: 403–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Puck, T. T., Wuthier, P., Jones, C., and Kao. F., 1971, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells: Lethal antigens as genetic markers for study of human linkage groups, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68: 3102–3106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Purohit, K. R., Weber, J. L., Ward, L. J., and Keats. B. J. B., 1992, The Kell blood group locus is close to the cystic fibrosis locus on chromosome 7, Hum. Genet. 89: 457–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Race, R. R., and Sanger, R., 1975a. Blood Groups in Man, 6th ed., pp. 619–635, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  105. Race, R. R., and Sanger, R., 1975b, Lods table, in Blood Groups in Man, 6th ed., pp. 554–557, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  106. Raemaekers, P., Van Brooeckhoven, C., Backhovens, H., Muylle, L., De Jonghe, P., Gheuens, J., and Vendenberghe, A., 1988, The Duffy blood group is linked to the alpha-spectrin locus in a large pedigree with autosomal dominant inheritance of Charcot—Marie—Tooth disease type 1. Hum. Genet. 78: 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rahuel, C., London, J., d’Auriol, L., Mattei. M.-G., Tournamille, C., Skrzynia, C., Lebouc, Y., Galibert, F., and Cartron, J.-P., 1988, Characterization of cDNA clones for human glycophorin A. Use for gene localization and for analysis of normal or glycophorin-A-deficient (Finnish type) genomic DNA, Eur. J. Biochem. 172: 147–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rao, N., Ferguson, D. J., Lee, S. F., and Telen, M. J., 1991, Identification of human erythrocyte blood group antigens on the C3b/C4b receptor, J. Immunol. 146: 3502–3507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rapley, S. E., Robson, E. B., Harris, H., and Maynard-Smith, S., 1968, Data on the incidence, segregation and linkage relations of the adenylate kinase (AK) polymorphism, Ann. Hum. Genet. 31: 237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Redman, C. M., Marsh, W. L., Mueller, K. A., Avellino, G. P., and Johnson, C. L., 1984, Isolation of Kell-active protein from the red cell membrane, Transfusion 24: 176–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Renwick, J. H., 1971. The Rhesus syntenic group in man, Nature 234: 475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Renwick, J. H., and Schulze, J., 1965, Male and female recombination fractions for the nail-patella:ABO linkage in man, Ann. Hum. Genet. 28: 379–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Retief, E., Parker, M. I., and Retief, A. E., 1985, Regional chromosome mapping of human collagen genes alpha 2 (I) and alpha 1 (I) (COLIA2) and (COL1A1), Hum. Genet. 69: 304–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rey-Campos, J., Rubinstein. P., and Rodriguez de Cordoba, S., 1987, Decay-accelerating factor. Genetic polymorphism and linkage to the RCA (regulator of complement activation) gene cluster in humans, J. Exp. Med. 166: 246–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rittner, C., 1976, Genetic loci of components of the classical and alternative pathway of complement activation: A new dimension of the immunogenetic linkage group on chromosome 6 in man, Hum. Genet. 35: 1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rodriguez de Cordoba, S., and Rubinstein, P., 1986, Quantitative variations of the C3b/C4b receptor (CRI) in human erythrocytes are controlled by genes within the regulator of complement activation (RCA) gene cluster in man, Immunogenetics 25: 267–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ruddle, F., Ricciuti, F., McMorris, F. A., Tischfield, J., Creagan. R., Darlington, G., and Chen, T., 1972, Somatic cell genetic assignment of peptidase C and the Rh linkage group to chromosome A-1 in man, Science 176: 1429–1431.Google Scholar
  118. Sanger, R., and Race, R. R., 1947, Subdivisions of the MN blood groups in man, Nature 160:505. Sanger. R., and Race, R. R., 1958, The Lutheran—secretor linkage in man: Support for Mohr’s findings, Heredity 12: 513–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sanger, R., Tippett, P., Gavin, J., and Race, R. R., 1973, Failure to demonstrate linkage between the loci for the Rh and Duffy blood groups, Ann. Hum. Genet. 36: 353–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shows, T. B., McAlpine. P. J., Boucheix, C., Collins, F. S., Conneally, P. M., Frezel. J., Gershowitz, H., Goodfellow, P. N., Hall, J. G., Issitt, P. D., Jones, C. A., Knowles, B. B., Lewis, M., McKusick, V. A., Meisler, M., Morton, N. E., Rubinstein, P., Schanfield, M. S., Schmickel, R. D., Skolnick, M. H., Spence, M. A., Sutherland. G. R., Traver, M., Van Cong. N., and Willard, H. F., 1987, Guidelines for human gene nomenclature, Human Gene Mapping 9 (Paris Conference, 1987), Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 46: 11–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sistonen, P., 1984, Linkage of the LW blood group locus with complement C3 and Lutheran blood group loci, Ann. Hum. Genet. 48: 239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sorieul. S., and Ephrussi, B., 1961, Karyological demonstration of hybridization of mammalian cells in vitro, Nature 190: 653–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Spence, M. A., Field, L. L., Marazita, M. L., Joseph, J., Sparkes, M., Crist, M., Crandall, B. F., Anderson, C. E., Bateman, J. B., Rotter, J. I., Kidd, K. E., Hodge. S. E., and Sparkes, R. S., 1984, Estimating the recombination frequency for the MN and Ss loci. Hum. Hered. 34: 343–347.Google Scholar
  124. Spring, F. A., Judson, P. A., Daniels, G. L., Parsons, S. F., Mallinson, G., and Anstee, D. J., 1987, A human cell surface glycoprotein that carries Cromer-related blood group antigens on erythrocytes and is also expressed on leucocytes and platelets, Immunology 62: 307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Spring, F. A., Dalchau, R., Daniels, G. L., Mallinson, G., Judson, P. A., Parsons, S. F., Fabre, J. W., and Anstee, D. J., 1988, The In’ and In blood group antigens are located on a glycoprotein of 80,000 MW (the CDw44 glycoprotein) whose expression is influenced by the In(Lu) gene, Immunology 64: 37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Spring, F. A., Gardner, B., and Anstee, D. J., 1992a, Evidence that the antigens of the Yt blood group system are located on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase, Blood 80: 2136–2141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Spring, F. A., Bruce, L. J., Anstee. D. J., and Tanner, M. J. A., 1992b, A red cell band 3 variant with altered stilbene disulphonate binding is associated with the Diego (Di’) blood group antigen, Biochem. J. 288: 713–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Steinberg, A. G., Giblett, E. R., Lewis, M., and Zachary, A. A., 1984, A crossover or mutation in the Rh region revisited, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 36: 700–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Teisberg, P., Olaisen, B., Jonassen, R., Gedde-Dahl, T., Jr., and Thorsby, E., 1977, The genetic polymorphism of the fourth component of complement (C4): Methodological aspects and a presentation of linkage and association data relevant to its localization in the HLA region, J. Exp. Med. 146: 1380–1389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Telen, M. J., Hall, S. E., Green, A. M., Moulds, J. J., and Rosse, W. F., 1988, Identification of human erythrocyte blood group antigens on decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and an erythrocyte phenotype negative for DAF, J. Exp. Med. 167: 1993–1998.Google Scholar
  131. Tijo, J. H., and Levan, A., 1956, The chromosome number in man, Hereditas 42: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tilley, C. A., Romans, D. G., and Crookston, M. C., 1978, Localization of Chido and Rodgers determinants to the C4d fragment of human C4, Nature 276: 713–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. van der Hagen, C. B., Olaisen, B., and Berg, K., 1979, Confirmation of provisional assignment of the GC locus to chromosome 4, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 25: 214.Google Scholar
  134. van Heyningen, V., Seawright, A., Boyd, P. A., Fletcher, J., Fantes, J. A., Buckton, K. E., Morton, M. S., Hill, R. E., Porteous, D. J., Phillips, C. I., and Hastie, N. D., 1985, Analysis of chromosome 11 deletions in aniridia/Wilms tumor association (AWTA), Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 40: 768.Google Scholar
  135. Walsh, R. J., and Montgomery, C., 1947, A new human isoagglutinin subdividing the MN blood groups, Nature 160: 504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Weiss, J. H., Morton, C. C., Bruns, G. A., Weiss. J. J., Klickstein, L. B., Wong, W. W., and Fearon, D. T., 1987, A complement receptor locus: Genes encoding C3b/C4b receptor and Cad/EpsteinBarr virus receptor map to 1g32, J. lmmunol. 138: 312–315.Google Scholar
  137. Weitkamp, L. R., Guttormsen, S. A., and Greendyke, R. M., 1971. Genetic linkage between a locus for 6-PGD and the Rh locus: Evaluation of possible heterogeneity in the recombination fraction between sexes and among families, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 23: 462–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Weitkamp, L. R., Johnston. E., and Guttormsen, S. A., 1974, Probable genetic linkage between the loci for the Lewis blood group and complement C3, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 13: 183–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Westerveld, A., Jongsma, A. P. M., Meera Khan, P., van Someren, H., and Bootsma, D., 1976, Assignment of the AK-I:Np:ABO linkage group to chromosome 9, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 895–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Weston, B. W., Nair, R. P., Larsen, R. D., and Lowe, J. B., 1992. Isolation of a novel human a(1,3) fucosyltransferase gene and molecular comparison to the human Lewis blood group a(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase gene, J. Biol. Chem. 267: 4152–4160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. White, R. L., Leppert, M., Bishop, T., Barker, D., Berkowitz, J., Brown. C., Callahan, P., Holm, T., and Jerominski, L. 1985, Construction of linkage maps with DNA markers for human chromosomes, Nature 313: 101–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Whitehead, A. S., Solomon, E., Chambers, S., Bodmer, W. F., Povey. S., and Fey, G., 1982. Assignment of the structural gene for the third component of human complement to chromosome 19, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5021–5025.Google Scholar
  143. Williams, B. P., Pym, B., Tippett, P., Sheer, D., Povey, S., Andrews, P. W., Goodfellow, P. N., Daniels, G. L., and Okubo, Y., 1987. Another red cell surface antigen Ok’ is encoded by a gene on chromosome 19, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 46: 717.Google Scholar
  144. Williams, B. P., Daniels, G. L., Pym, B., Sheer, D., Povey, S., Okubo, Y., Andrews, P. W., and Goodfellow, P. N., 1988, Biochemical and genetic analysis of the Ok’ blood group antigen, Immunogenetics 27: 322–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Yates, J. R. W., Goudie, D. R., Gillard, E. F., Aitken, D. A., Affara, N. A., Clayton, J. F., Tippett. P. A., and Ferguson-Smith. M. A., 1987, Multipoint linkage analysis of steroid sulphatase (X-linked ichthyosis) and distal Xp markers, Genomics 1: 52–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zelinski, T., 1991, The use of DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisme in conjunction with blood group serology, Transfusion 31: 762–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zelinski, T., Coghlan, G., Greenberg, C. R., McAlpine, P. J., and Lewis, M., 1989. Evidence that SE is distal to LU on chromosome 19q, Transfusion 29: 304–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zelinski, T., Kaita, H., Gilson, T., Coghlan, G., Philipps, S., and Lewis, M., 1990, Linkage between the Colton blood group locus and ASSPI I on chromosome 7, Genomics 6: 623–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Zelinski, T., White, L., Coghlan, G., and Philipps, S., 1991a, Assignment of the YT blood group locus to chromosome 7q, Genomics 11: 165–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Zelinski, T. A., White, L. J., Coghlan, G. E., and Philipps, S. E., 1991b, Linkage relationships between CO, D7S135, and ASSPII on chromosome 7p, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 58: 1927.Google Scholar
  151. Zelinski, T. A., Coghlan, G. E., Myal, Y., White, L. J., and Philipps, S., 1991e, Assignment of the KEL blood group locus to chromosome 7q, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 58: 1927.Google Scholar
  152. Zelinski, T., Coghlan, G., Myal, Y., Shiu, R. P. C., Philipps, S., White. L., and Lewis, M., 1991d, Genetic linkage between the Kell blood group system and prolactin-inducible protein loci: Provisional assignment of KEL to chromosome 7, Ann. Hum. Genet. 55: 137–140.Google Scholar
  153. Zelinski, T., Coghlan, G., White, L., and Philipps, S., 1993, The Diego blood group locus is located on chromosome 17q, Genomics 17: 665–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marion Lewis
    • 1
  • Teresa Zelinski
    • 1
  1. 1.Rh Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, and Department of Human Genetics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations