Advertisement

Megakaryocyte Maturation and Platelet Release in Normal and Pathologic Conditions

  • Janine Breton-Gorius
Part of the Blood Cell Biochemistry book series (BLBI, volume 2)

Abstract

By examination of histological preparations, Wright (1906) was the first to suggest that platelets originate from fragmentation of the cytoplasm of bone marrow megakaryocytes. These cells can be differentiated from other bone marrow cells by their large size, which is related to the process of endomitosis leading to a polyploid nucleus (Levine et al., 1982).

Keywords

Platelet Factor Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Alpha Granule Human Megakaryocyte Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersson, L. C., Jokinen, M., and Gahmberg, C. G., 1979, Induction of erythroid differentiation in the human leukemia cell line K562, Nature (London) 278: 364–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arriaga, M., South, K., Cohen, J. L., and Mazur, E. M., 1987, Interrelationship between mitosis and endomitosis in cultures of human megakaryocyte progenitor cells, Blood 69: 486–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Assoian, R. F., Komoriya, A., Meyers, C. A., Miller, D. M., and Sporn, M. B., 1983, Transforming growth factor-13 in human platelets. Identification of a major site, purification, and characterization, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 7155–7160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Avanzi, G. C., Lista, P., Giovinazzo, B., Miniero, R., Saglio, G., Benetton, G., Coda, R., Cattoretti, G., and Pegoraro, L., 1988, Selective growth response to IL3 of a human leukaemic cell line with megakaryoblatic features, Br. J. Haematol. 69: 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bain, B. J., Catovsky, D., O’Brien, M., Prentice, H. G., Lawlor, E., Kumaran, T. O., McCann, S. R., Matutes, E., and Galton, D. A. G., 1981, Megakaryoblastic leukemia presenting as acute myelofibrosis: A study of four cases with the platelet peroxidase reaction, Blood 58: 206–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balducci, L., Weitzner, S., Beghe, C., and Morrison, F. S., 1978, Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Description of a case initially seen as preleukemic syndrome, Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 794–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker, R. P., and De Bruyn, R. R. H., 1976, The transmural passage of blood cells into myeloid sinusoids and the entry of platelets into sinusoidal circulation: A scanning electron microscope investigation, Am. J. Anat. 145: 183–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beckstead, J. H., Stenberg, P. E., McEver, R. P., Shuman, M. A., and Bainton, D. F., 1986, Immunohistochemical localization of membrane a-granule proteins in human megakaryocytes: Application to plastic embedded bone marrow specimens, Blood 67: 285–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Behnke, O., 1967, Electron microscopic observations on the membrane systems of the rat blood platelet, Anat. Rec. 158: 121–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Behnke, O., 1968, An electron microscope study of the megakaryocyte of the rat bone marrow. I. The development of the demarcation membrane system and the platelet surface coat, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 24: 412–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behnke, O., 1969, An electron microscope study of the rat megakaryocyte. II. Some aspects of platelet release and microtubules, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26: 111–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belloc, F., Hourdillé, P., Fialon, P., Boisseau, M. R., and Soria, J., 1985, Fibrinogen synthesis by megakaryocytes rich human marrow cell concentrations, Thromb. Res. 38: 341–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett, J. M., Catovsky, D., Daniel, M. T., Flandrin, G., Galton, D. A. G., Gralnick, H. R., and Sultan, C., 1985, Criteria for the diagnosis of acute leukemia of megakaryocyte lineage (M7), Ann. Intern. Med. 103: 460–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bentfeld-Barker, M. E., and Bainton, D. F., 1975, Cytochemical localization of lysosomal enzymes in rat megakaryocytes and platelets, J. Clin. Invest. 56: 1635–1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bentfeld-Barker, M. E., and Bainton, D. F., 1977, Ultrastructure of rat megakaryocytes after prolonged thrombocytopenia, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 61: 201–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bentfeld-Barker, M. E., and Bainton, D. F., 1982, Identification of primary lysosomes in human megakaryocytes and platelets, Blood 59: 472–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Berkow, R. L., Straneva, J. E., Bruno, E. D., Beyer, G. S., Burgess, J. S., and Hoffman, R., 1984, Isolation of human megakaryocytes by density centrifugation and counterflow centrifugal elutriation, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 103: 811–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Berman, C. L., Yeo, E. L., Wencel-Drake, J. D., Furie, B. C., Ginsberg, M. H., and Furie, B., 1986, A platelet alpha granule protein that is associated with the plasma membrane after activation. Characterization and subcellular localization of platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein, J. Clin. Invest. 78: 130–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Berndt, M. C., Castaldi, P. A., Gordon, S., Halley, H., and McPherson, V. J., 1983, Morphological and biochemical confirmation of gray platelet syndrome in two siblings, Aust. N.Z.J. Med. 13: 387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berridge, M. V., and Ralph, S. J., 1985, Cell lineage antigens of the stem cell-megakaryocyte-platelet lineage are associated with the platelet IIb-IIIa glycoprotein complex, Blood 66: 76–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berridge, M. V., Fraser, J. K., Carter, J. M., and Lin, F. K., 1988, Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on megakaryocytes and on platelet production in the rat, Blood 72: 970–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boxer, G. J., Holmsen, H., Robkin, L., Bland, N. U., Boxer, L. A., and Baehner, R. L., 1977, Abnormal platelet function in Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Br. J. Haematol. 35: 521–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bray, P. F., Rosa, J. P., Johnston, G. I., Shiu, D. T., Cook, R. G., Lau, C., Kan, Y. W., McEver, R. P., and Shuman, M. A., 1987, Platelet glycoprotein IIb. Chromosomal localization and tissue expression, J. Clin. Invest. 80: 1812–1817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Breton-Gorius, J., 1975, Development of two membrane systems associated in giant complexes in pathological megakaryocytes, Ser. Haematol. 8: 49–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Breton-Gorius, J., 1979, Abnormalities of granulocytes and megakaryocytes in preleukemic syndromes, in Preleukemia (F. Schmalzl and K. P. Hellriegel, eds.), pp. 24–34, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Breton-Gorius, J., 1981, On the alleged phagocytosis by megakaryocytes, Br. J. Haematol. 47: 635–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Breton-Gorius, J., 1987, Phenotype of blasts in acute erythroblastic and megakaryoblastic leukemia, Keio J. Med. 36: 23–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Breton-Gorius, J., and Guichard, J., 1975, Two different types of granules in megakaryocytes and platelets as revealed by the diaminobenzidine method, J. Microsc. Biol. Cell 23: 197–202.Google Scholar
  29. Breton-Gorius, J., and Reyes, F., 1976, Ultrastructure of human bone marrow cell maturation, Int. J. Rev. Cytol. 46: 251–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Breton-Gorius, J., and Vainchenker, W., 1986, Expression of platelet proteins during the in vitro and in vivo differentiation of megakaryocytes and morphological aspects of their maturation, Semin. Hematol. 23: 43–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Breton-Gorius, J., Dreyfus, B., Sultan, C., Basch, A., and d’Oliveira, J. G., 1972, Identification of circulating micromegakaryocytes in a case of refractory anemia: An electron microscopic cytochemical study, Blood 40: 453–463.Google Scholar
  32. Breton-Gorius, J., Daniel, M. T., Flandrin, G., and Kinet-Denoël, G., 1973, Fine structure and peroxidase activity of circulating micromegakaryoblasts and platelets in a case of acute myelofibrosis, Br. J. Haematol. 25: 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Breton-Gorius, J., Reyes, F., Vernant, J. P., Tulliez, M., and Dreyfus, B., 1978a, The blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukaemia: Megakaryoblastic nature of cells as revealed by the presence of platelet peroxidase. A cytochemical ultrastructural study, Br. J. Haematol. 39: 295–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Breton-Gorius, J., Reyes, F., Duhamel, G., Najman, A., and Gorin, N. C., 19786, Megakaryoblastic acute leukemia: Identification by the ultrastructural demonstration of platelet peroxidase, Blood 51: 45–60.Google Scholar
  35. Breton-Gorius, J., Vainchenker, W., Nurden, A., Levy-Toledano, S., and Caen, J., 1981, Defective a-granule production in megakaryocytes from gray platelet syndrome: Ultrastructural studies of bone marrow cells and megakaryocytes growing in culture from blood precursors, Am. J. Pathol. 102: 10–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Breton-Gorius, J., Bizet, M., Reyes, F., Dupuy, E., Mear, C., Vannier, J. R., and Tron, P., 1982, Myelofibrosis and acute myeloblastic leukemia in a child: Topographic relationship between fibroblasts and megakaryocytes with an a-granule defect, Leuk. Res. 6: 97–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Breton-Gorius, J., Van Haeke, D., Pryzwansky, K. B., Guichard, J., Tabilio, A., Vainchenker, W., and Carmel, R., 1984, Simultaneous detection of membrane markers with monoclonal antibodies and peroxidase activities in leukaemia: Ultrastructural analysis using a new method of fixation preserving the platelet peroxidase, Br. J. Haematol. 58: 447–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Breton-Gorius, J., Villeval, J. L., Mitjavila, M. T., Vinci, G., Guichard, J., Rochant, H., Flandrin, G., and Vainchenker, W., 1987, Ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of blasts from early erythroblastic leukemias, Leukemia 1: 173–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bricker, L. J., and Zuckerman, K. S., 1984, Serotonin uptake by progeny of murine megakaryocyte precursors (CFU-MK) in vitro, Exp. Hematol. 12: 672–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Broekman, M. J., Handin, R. I., Cohen, P., 1975, Distribution of fibrinogen and platelet factor 4 and VIII in subcellular fractions of human platelets, Br. J. Haematol. 31: 51–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bruno, E., Briddell, R., and Hoffman, R., 1988, Effect of recombinant and purified hematopoietic growth factors on human megakaryocyte colony formation, Exp. Hematol. 16: 371–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Buchanan, G. R., and Handin, R. I., 1976, Platelet function in the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Blood 47: 941–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cairney, A. E. L., McKenna, R., Arthur, D. C., Nesbit, M. E., and Woods, W. G., 1986, Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in children, Br. J. Haematol. 63: 541–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cantù-Rajnoldi, A., Cattoretti, G., Caccamo, M. L., Biasini, A., Bagnato, L., Schirò, R., and Polli, N., 1988, Leukaemoid reaction with megakaryocytic features in newborns with Down’s syndrome, Eur. J. Haematol. 40: 403–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Castro-Malaspina, H., Rabellino, E., Yen, A., Nachman, R. L., and Moore, M. A. S., 1981, Human megakaryocyte stimulation of proliferation of bone marrow fibroblasts, Blood 57: 781–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Castro-Malaspina, H., Gay, R. E., Jhanwar, S. C., Hamilton, J. A., Chiarieri, D. R., Meyers, P. A., Gay, S., and Moore, M. A. S., 1982, Characteristics of bone marrow fibroblast colony-forming cells (CFU-F) and their progeny in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, Blood 59: 1046–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chatelain, C., De Bast, M., and Symann, M., 1988, Identification of a light density murine megakaryocyte progenitor (LD-CFU-M), Blood 72: 1187–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Chen, L. T., Handler, E. E. R., and Weiss, L., 1972, An electron microscopic study of the bone marrow of the rat in an experimental myelogenous leukemia, Blood 39: 99–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Chédiak, M. M., 1952, Nouvelle anomalie leucocytaire de caractère constitutionel et familial, Rev. Hematol. 7: 362–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chernoff, A., Levine, R. F., and Goodman, D. S., 1980, Origin of platelet-derived growth factor in megakaryocytes in guinea pig, J. Clin. Invest. 65: 926–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chiu, H. C., Schick, P. K., and Colman, R. W., 1985, Biosynthesis of factor V in isolated guinea pig megakaryocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 75: 339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cooper, T. W., Eisen, A. Z., Stricklin, G. P., and Welgus, A. G., 1985, Platelet-derived collagenase inhibitor: Characterization and subcellular localization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 2779–2783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Costa, J. L., Fauci, A. S., and Wolff, S. M., 1976, A platelet abnormality in the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome of man, Blood 48: 517–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Coulombel, L., Derycke, M., Villeval, J. L., Leonard, C., Breton-Gorius, J., Vial, M., Bourgeois, P., and Tchernia, G., 1987, Characterization of the blast cell population in two neonates with Down’s syndrome and transient myeloproliferative disorder, Br. J. Haematol. 66: 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cramer, E. M., Meyer, D., LeMenn, R., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1985a, Eccentric localization of von Willebrand factor in an internal structure of platelet a-granule resembling that of Weibel-Palade bodies, Blood 66: 710–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cramer, E. M., Vainchenker, W., Vinci, G., Guichard, J., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1985b, Gray platelet syndrome: Immunoelectron microscopic localization of fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in platelets and megakaryocytes, Blood 66: 1309–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cramer, E. M., Caen, J., Drouet, L., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1986, Absence of tubular structures and immunolabeling for von Willebrand factor in the platelet a-granules from porcine von Willebrand disease, Blood 68: 774–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Cramer, E. M., Breton-Gorius, J., Beesley, J., and Martin, J. F., 1988a, Ultrastructural demonstration of tubular inclusions coinciding with von Willebrand factor in pig megakaryocytes, Blood 71: 1533–1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cramer, E. M., Savidge, G. E., Vainchenker, W., and Breton-Gorius, J., I988b, Alpha-granule pool of glycoprotein IIb-IIIa in normal and pathological platelets and megakaryocytes, Blood 72(Suppl. 1 ): 320.Google Scholar
  60. Cramer, E. M., Debili, N., Martin, J. F., Gladwin, A. M., Breton-Gorius, J., Harrison, P., Savidge, G. E., and Vainchenker, W., 1989, Uncoordinated expression of fibrinogen compared with thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor in maturing megakaryocytes, Blood 73: 1123 - I129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Daimon, T., and Davis, H., 1983, Precursors of monoamine-storage organelles in developing megakaryocytes of the rat, Histochemistry 77: 353–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Damiani, G., Zocchi, E., Fabbi, M., Bargellesi, A., and Patrone, F., 1983, A monoclonal antibody to platelet glycoprotein IIb and IIIa complex: Its use in purifying human megakaryocytes from sternal bone marrow aspirates for immunofluorescence studies of la-like antigens, Exp. Hematol. 11: 169–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Da Prada, M., Pletscher, A., Tranzer, J. P., and Knuchel, H., 1967, Subcellular localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine in blood platelets, Nature (London) 216: 1315–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Da Prada, M., Richards, J. G., and Kettler, R., 1981, Amine storage organelles in platelets, in Platelets in Biology and Pathology ( A. S. Gordon, ed.), pp. 107–145, Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  65. Davis, R. B., and White, J. G., 1968, Localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine in blood platelets: An auto-radiographic and ultrastructural study, Br. J. Haematol. 15: 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Day, J. H., and Solum, N. O., 1973, Fibrinogen associated with subcellular platelet particles, Scand. J. Haematol. 10: 136–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dessypris, E. N., Gleaton, J. H., and Armstrong, O. L., 1987a, Effect of human recombinant erythropoietin on human marrow megakaryocyte colony formation in vitro, Br. J. Haematol. 65: 265–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Dessypris, E. N., Gleaton, J. H., Sawyer, S. T., and Armstrong, O. L., 1987b, Suppression of maturation of megakaryocyte colony forming unit in vitro by a platelet-released glycoprotein, J. Cell Physiol. 130: 36 1368.Google Scholar
  69. Doi, T., Greenberg, S. M., and Rosenberg, R. D., 1987, Structure of the rat platelet factor 4 gene: A marker for megakaryocyte differentiation, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7: 898–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Duperray, A., Berthier, R., Chagnon, E., Ryckewaert, J. J., Ginsberg, M., Plow, E., and Marguerie, G., 1987, Biosynthesis and processing of platelet Gp IIb-IIIa in human megakaryocytes, J. Cell Biol. 104: 1665–1673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Efrati, P., Nir, E., Yaari, A., Berrebi, A., Kaplan, H., and Dvilanski, A., 1979, Myeloproliferative disorders terminating in acute micromegakaryoblastic leukaemia, Br. J. Haematol. 43: 79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Egner, J. R., Abbo, K., and Dimitrov, N. V., 1982, Megakaryocytic leukaemia as a phase of myeloproliferative disorders, Scand. J. Haematol. 28: 186–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Eid, J., Ebert, R. F., Gesell, M. S., and Spivak, J. L., 1987, Intracellular growth factors in polycythemia vera and other myeloproliferative disorders, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 532–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Epstein, C. J., Sahud, M. A., Piel, C. F., Goodman, J. R., Bemfield, M. R., Kushner, J. H., and Ablin, A. R., 1972, Hereditary macrothrombocytopathia, nephritis and deafness, Am. J. Med. 52: 299–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Fedorko, M. E., 1977, The functional capacity of guinea pig megakaryocytes. I. Uptake of 3H-serotonin by megakaryocytes and their physiologic and morphologic response to stimuli for the platelet release reaction, Lab. Invest. 36: 310–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Fraser, J. K., Lin, F. K., and Berridge, M. V., 1988, Expression of high affinity receptor for erythropoietin on human bone marrow cells and on the human erythroleukemic cell line, HEL, Exp. Hematol. 16: 836–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Geissler, D., Konwalinka, G, Peschel, C., and Braunsteiner, H., 1987, The role of erythropoietin, megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor and T-cell-derived factors on human megakaryocyte colony formation: Evidence for T-cell-mediated and T-cell-independent stem cell proliferation, Exp. Hematol. 15: 845–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. George, J. N., Nurden, A. T., and Phillips, D. R., 1984, Molecular defects in interactions of platelets with the vessel wall, N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 1084–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. George, J. N., Saucerman, S., Levine, S. P., Knierem, L. K., and Bainton, D. F., 1985, Immunoglobulin G is a platelet alpha granule-secreted protein, J. Clin. Invest. 76: 2020–2025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gerrard, J. M., White, J. G., Rao, G. H. R., and Townsend, D., 1976, Localization of platelet prostaglandin production in the platelet dense tubular system, Am. J. Pathol. 83: 283–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gerrard, J. M., Phillips, D. R., Rao, G. H. R., Plow, E. F., Walz, D. A., Ross, R., Harker, L. A., and White, J. G., 1980, Biochemical studies of two patients with the gray platelet syndrome. Selective deficiency of platelet alpha granules, J. Clin. Invest. 66: 102–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gewirtz, A. M., Burger, D., Rado, T. A., Benz, E. J. J., and Hoffman, R., 1982, Constitutive expression of platelet glycoproteins by the human leukemia cell line K562, Blood 60: 785–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gewirtz, A. M., Bruno, E., Elwell, J., and Hoffman, R., 1983, In vitro studies of megakaryocytopoiesis in thrombocytotic disorders of man, Blood 61: 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gewirtz, A. M., Keefer, M., Doshi, K., Annamalai, A. E., Chiu, H. C., and Colman, R. W., 1986, Biology of human megakaryocyte factor V, Blood 67: 1639–1648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gidding, J. C., Brookes, L. R., Piovella, F., and Bloom, A. L., 1982, Immunohistological comparison of platelet factor 4, fibronectin and factor VIII-related antigen in human platelet granules, Br. J. Haematol. 52: 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gladwin, A. M., and Martin, J. F., 1988, A rapid and simple method for isolation of a pure population of human megakaryocytes from whole bone marrow using an immunomagnetic depletion technique, Blood 72 (Suppl. 1): 322a.Google Scholar
  87. Godwin, H. A., and Ginsburg, A. D., 1974, May-Hegglin anomaly: A defect in megakaryocyte fragmentation?, Br. J. Haematol. 26: 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Greenberg, S. M., Kuter, D. J., and Rosenberg, R. D., 1987, In vitro stimulation of megakaryocyte maturation by megakaryocyte stimulatory factor, J. Biol. Chem. 262: 3269–3277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Greenberg, S. M., Rosenthal, D. S., Greeley, T. A., Tantravahi, R., and Handin, R. I., 1988, Characterization of a new megakaryocyte cell line: The Dami cell, Blood 72: 1968–1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Grossi, A., Vannucchi, A. M., Rafanelli, D., Vannucchi, L., and Ferrini, P. R., 1987, Megakaryocyte progenitors in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with myeloproliferative diseases, Am. J. Hematol. 25: 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hagen, I., Olsen, T., and Solum, N. O., 1976, Studies on subcellular fractions of human platelets by lactoperoxidase-iodination technique, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 455: 214–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Handagama, P. J., George, J. N., Shuman, M. A., McEver, R. P., and Bainton, D. F., 1987a, Incorpoation of a circulating protein into megakaryocyte and platelet granules, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 861–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Handagama, P. J., Shuman, M. A., and Bainton, D. F., 19876, Uptake of circulating albumin, immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen by guinea pig megakaryocytes in vivo, Blood 70(Suppl. 1 ): 154a.Google Scholar
  94. Handagama, P., Rappolee, D. A., Werb, Z., and Bainton, D. F., 1988a, Certain platelet alpha granule proteins, PF-4, PDGF-A chain and TGF-a are synthesized by developing megakaryocytes, whereas albumin is not, J. Cell Biol. 107: 117a.Google Scholar
  95. Handagama, P., Shuman, R., Shuman, M. A., and Bainton, D. F., 1988b, In vivo defibrination results in marked decreased level of fibrinogen in megakaryocytes and platelets in rats, Blood 72 (Suppl. I): 323a.Google Scholar
  96. Hansen, M. S., and Tinggaard-Pedersen, N., 1978, Circulating megakaryocytes in blood from antecubital vein in healthy adult humans, Scand. J. Haematol. 20: 371–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hansen, M. S., Behnke, O., Tinggaard-Pedersen, N., and Videbaek, A., 1978, Megathrombocytopenia associated with glomerulonephritis, deafness and aortic cystic medianecrosis, Scand. J. Haematol. 21: 197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hardisty, R. M., Mils, D. B. C., and Kersa-Ard, K., 1972, The platelet defect associated with albinism, Br. J. Haematol. 23: 679–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hayashi, Y., Eguchi, M., Sugita, K., Nakazawa, S., Sato, T., Kojima, S., Bessho, F., Konishi, S., Inaba, T., Hanada, R., and Yamamoto, K., 1988, Cytogenetic findings and clinical features in acute leukemia and transient myeloproliferative disorder in Down’s syndrome, Blood 72: 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hermansky, F., and Pudlak, P., 1959, Albinism associated with hemorrhagic diathesis and unusual pigmented reticular cells in the bone marrow: Report of two cases with histochemical studies, Blood 4: 163–169.Google Scholar
  101. Heynen, M. J., Blockmans, D., Verwilghen, R. L., and Vermylen, J., 1988, Congenital macrothrombocytopenia, leucocyte inclusions, deafness and proteinuria: Functional and electron microscopic observations on platelets and megakaryocytes, Br. J. Haematol. 70: 441–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Higashi, O., 1954, Congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules. The first case ever reported of qualitative abnormality of peroxidase, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 59: 315–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hoffman, R., Yang, H. H., Bruno, E., and Straneva, J., 1985, Purification and partial characterization of a megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor from human plasma, J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1174–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hoffman, R., Straneva, J., Yang, H. H., Bruno, E., and Brandt, J., 1987, New insights into the regulation of human megakaryocytopoiesis, Blood Cells 13: 75–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Holland, J. M., 1976, Serotonin deficiency and prolonged bleeding in Beige mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 151: 32–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Holmsen, H., 1982, Platelet secretion, in Hemostasis and Thrombosis. Basic Principles and Clinical Practice ( R. W. Colman, J. Hirsh, V. J. Marder, and E. W. Salzman, eds.), pp. 390–403, Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  107. Holt, J. C., Rabellino, E. M., Gewirtz, A. M., Gunkel, L. M., and Rucinski, B., 1988, Occurrence of platelet basic protein, a precursor of low affinity platelet factor 4 and 3 thromboglobulin, in human platelets and megakaryocytes, Exp. Hematol. 16: 302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hourdillé, P., Fialon, P., Belloc, F., Boisseau, M. R., and Andrieu, J. M., 1982, Mepacrine labelling test and uranaffin cytochemical reaction in human megakaryocytes, Thromb. Haemostasis 47: 232–235.Google Scholar
  109. Hyde, P., and Zucker-Franklin, D., 1987, Antigenic differences between human platelets and megakaryocytes, Am. J. Pathol. 127: 349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Imbert, M., Jarry, M. T., Tulliez, M., and Breton-Gorius, 1., 1983, Platelet peroxidase deficiency in a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with myelofibrosis, J. Clin. Pathol. 36: 1223–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ishibashi, T., Ruggeri, Z. M., Harker, L. A., and Burstein, S. A., 1986, Separation of human megakaryocytes by state of differentiation on continuous gradient of percoll: Size and ploidy analysis of cells identified by monoclonal antibody to glycoprotein IIb-Iila, Blood 67: 1286–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ishibashi, T., Koziol, J. A., and Burstein, S. A., 1987a, Human recombinant erythropoietin promotes differentiation of murine megakaryocytes in vitro, J. Clin. Invest. 79: 286–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ishibashi, T., Miller, S. L., and Burstein, S. A., 1987b, Type ß transforming growth factor is a potent inhibitor of murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro, Blood 59: 1737–1741.Google Scholar
  114. Jackson, C. W., 1973, Cholinesterase as a possible marker for early cells of the megakaryocyte series, Blood 42: 413–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Jackson, C. W., 1974, Some characteristics of rat megakaryocyte precursors identified using cholinesterase as a marker, in Platelets, Production, Function, Transfusion and Storage ( M. G. Baldini and S. Ebbe, eds.), pp. 33–40, Grune and Stratton, Orlando, Fla.Google Scholar
  116. Jackson, C. W., Brown, L. K., Somerville, B. C., Lyles, S. A., and Look, A. T., 1984, Two color flow cytometric measurement of DNA distribution of rat megakaryocytes in unfixed unfractionated marrow cell suspension, Blood 63: 768–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jackson, C. W., Steward, S. A., Hutson, N. K., and Ashmun, R. A., 1987, Interaction of ristocetin and bovine plasma with guinea pig megakaryocytes: A means to enrich megakaryocytes based on membrane rather than physical characteristics, Blood 69: 173–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jackson, C. W., Hutson, N. K., Steward, S. A., Ashmum, R. A., Davis, D. S., Edwards, H. H., Rehg, J. E., and Dockter, M. E., 1988, The Wistar Furth rat: An animal model of hereditary macrothrombocytopenia, Blood 71: 1676–1686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Jacobs, P., Leroux, I., and Jacobs, L., 1984, Megakaryoblastic transformation in myeloproliferative disorders, Cancer 54: 297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Jenkis, R. B., Nichols, W. L., Mann, K. G., and Solberg, L. A., 1986, CFU-M-derived human megakaryocytes synthesize glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, Blood 67: 682–688.Google Scholar
  121. Jokinen, M., Gahmberg, C. G., and Andersson, L. C., 1979, Biosynthesis of the major human red cell sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, in a continuous cell line, Nature (London) 279: 604–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jones, O. P., 1960, Origin of megakaryocyte granules from Golgi vesicles, Anat. Rec. 138: 105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Juvonen, E., Partanen, S., Knuutila, S., and Ruutu, T., 1986, Megakaryocyte colony formation by bone marrow progenitors in myelodysplastic syndromes, Br. J. Haematol. 63: 331–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Juvonen, E., Partanen, S., and Ruutu, T., 1987, Colony formation by megakaryocytic progenitors in essential thrombocythaemia, Br. J. Haematol. 66: 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Juvonen, E., Partanen, E., Ikkala, E., and Ruutu, T., 1988, Megakaryocytic colony formation in polycythaemia vera and secondary erythrocytosis, Br. J. Haematol. 69: 441–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kanz, L., Mielke, R., and Fauser, A. A., 1988, Analysis of human hemopoietic progenitor cells for the expression of glycoprotein IIIa, Exp. Hematol. 16: 741–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kaplan, K. L., Broekman, M. J., Chernoff, A., Lesznik, G. R., and Drilling. M., 1979a, Platelet a-granule proteins: Studies on release and subcellular localization, Blood 53: 604–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kaplan, K. L., Chao, F. C., and Stiles, C. D., 1979b, Platelet a-granules contain a growth factor for fibroblasts, Blood 53: 1043–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kaufman, R. M., Airo, R., Pollack, S., Crosby, W. H., and Doberneck, R., 1965, Origin of pulmonary megakaryocytes, Blood 25: 767–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kawakita, M., Ogawa, M., Goldwasser, E., and Miyake, T., 1983, Characterization of human megakaryocyte colony-stimulation factor in the urinary extracts from patients with aplastic anemic and idiopathic thrombocytenic purpura, Blood 61: 556–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Khalaf, M. R., and Hayhoe, F. G. J., 1987, Cytochemical demonstration of “platelet” peroxidase at the light microscope level, Eur. J. Haematol. 39: 128–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kimura, H., Burstein, S. A., Thorning, D., Powel, J. S., Harker, L. A., Fialkow, P. J., and Adamson, J., 1984, Human megakaryocytic progenitors (CFU-M) assayed in methylcellulose: Physical characteristics and requirements for growth, J. Cell. Physiol. 118: 87–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Köhler, M., Hellstem, P., Morgenstern, E., Mueller-Eckardt, C., Berberich, R., Meiser, R. J., Scheffler, P., and Wenzel, E., 1985, Gray platelet syndrome: Selective a-granule deficiency and thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet turn-over, Blut 50: 331–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Koike, T., Aoki, S., Maruyama, S., Narita, M., Ishizuka, T., Imanaka, H., Adachi, T., Maeda, H., and Shibata, A., 1987, Cell surface phenotyping of megakaryoblasts, Blood 69: 957–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Komatsu, N., Suda, T., Miura, Y., Sato, T., 1987, Responsiveness of human megakaryocytic cell line (CMK) to hemopoietic factors and inhibitors, Exp. Hematol. 15: 496.Google Scholar
  136. Kuriyama, K., Tomonaga, M., Matsuo, T., Ginnai, I., and Ichimaru, M., 1986, Diagnostic significance of detecting pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomalies and micromegakaryocytes in myelodysplastic syndromes, Br. J. Haematol. 63: 665–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lager, B., Scrutton, M. C., Holmsen, H., Day, H. J., and Wiss, J. J., 1975, Metal ion contents of gel-filtered platelets from patients with storage pool disease, Blood 46: 119–130.Google Scholar
  138. Laposata, M., Krueger, C. M., and Saffitz, J. E., 1987, Selective uptake of [3H] arachidonic acid into the dense tubular system of human platelets, Blood 70: 832–837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Larsen, T. E., 1970, Emperipolesis of granular leucocytes within megakaryocytes in the human hematopoietic bone marrow, Am. J. Pathol. 53: 485–490.Google Scholar
  140. Leven, R. M., and Nachmias, V. T., 1988, Microtubule coils occur in intact megakaryocytes, Blood Cells 13: 509–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Leven, R. M., and Tablin, F., 1988, Megakaryocyte and platelet ultrastructure in the Wistar Furth rat, Am. J. Pathol. 132: 417–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Leven, R. M., and Yee, M. K., 1987, Megakaryocyte morphogenesis stimulated in vitro by whole and partially fractionated thrombocytopenic plasma: A model system for the study of platelet formation, Blood 69: 1046 1052.Google Scholar
  143. Leven, R. M., Schick, P. K., and Budzynski, A. Z., 1985, Fibrinogen biosynthesis in isolated guinea pig megakaryocytes, Blood 65: 501–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Levene, R. B., Lamaziere, J. M. D., Broxmeyer, H. E., Lu, L., and Rabellino, E. M., 1985, Human megakaryocytes. V. Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes, J. Exp. Med. 161: 457–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Levine, R. F., and Fedorko, M. E., 1976, Isolation of intact megakaryocytes from guinea pig femoral marrow; successful harvest made possible with inhibitors of platelet aggregation; enrichment achieved with a two steps separation techniques, J. Cell Biol. 69: 159–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Levine, R. F., Hazzard, K., and Lamberg, J. D., 1982, The significance of megakaryocyte size, Blood 60: 1122–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Levy-Toledano, S., Caen, J. P., Breton-Gorius, J., Rendu, F., Cywiner-Golenzer, C., Dupuy, E., Legrand, Y., and Maclouf, J., 1981, Gray platelet syndrome: Alpha-granule deficiency, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 98: 831–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Loftus, J. C., Plow, E. F., Frelinger, A. L., D’Souza, S. E., Dixon, D., Lacy, J., Sorge, J., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1987, Molecular cloning and chemical synthesis of a region of platelet glycoprotein IIb involved in adhesive function, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 7114–7118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Long, M. W., and Henry, R. L., 1979, Thrombocytosis-induced suppression of small acetylcholinesterasepositive cells in bone marrow of rats, Blood 54: 1338–1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Long, M. W., Williams, N., and McDonald, T. P., 1982, Immature megakaryocytes in the mouse: In vitro relationship to megakaryocyte progenitor cells and mature megakaryocytes, J. Cell. Physiol. 112: 339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Long, M. W., Gragowski, L. L., Heffner, C. H., and Boxer, L. A., 1985, Phorbol diesters stimulate the development of an early murine progenitor cell. The burst-forming unit-megakaryocyte, J. Clin. Invest. 76: 431–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lopez, J. A., Chung, D. W., Fujikawa, K., Hagen, F. S., Papayannopoulou, T., and Roth, G. J., 1987, Cloning of the a-chain of human platelet glycoprotein Ib: A transmembrane protein with homology to leucine-rich a2-glycoprotein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 5615–5619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lorez, H. P., Da Prada, M., Rendu, F., and Pletscher, A., 1977, Mepacrine, a tool for investigating the 5hydroxytryptamine organelles of blood platelets by fluorescence microscopy, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 19: 200–206.Google Scholar
  154. Lozzio, C. B., and Lozzio, B. B., 1975, Human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line with positive Philadelphia chromosome, Blood 45: 321–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lu, L., Briddell, R. A., Graham, C. D., Brandt, J. E., Bruno, E., and Hoffman, R., 1988, Effect of recombinant and purified haematopoietic growth factors on in vitro colony formation by enriched population of human megakaryocyte progenitor cells, Br. J. Haematol. 70: 149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. MacDonald, T. D., 1988, Thrombopoietin: Its biology, purification and characterization, Exp. Hematol. 16: 201–205.Google Scholar
  157. MacDonald, T. D., Cottrell, M. B., Clift, R. E., Cullen, W. C., and Lin, F. K., 1987, High doses of recombinant erythropoietin stimulate platelet production in mice, Exp. Hematol. 15: 719–721.Google Scholar
  158. MacLaren, K. M., 1983, Immunohistochemical localisation of thrombospondin in human megakaryocytes and platelets, J. Clin. Pathol. 36: 197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. MacLaren, K. M., and Pepper, D., 1982, Immunological localisation of ß thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 in human megakaryocytes and platelets, J. Clin. Pathol. 36: 1227–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. MacPherson, G. G., 1972a, Origin and development of the demarcation system in megakaryocytes of rat bone marrow, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 40: 167–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. MacPherson, G. G., 1972b, Synthesis and localization of sulphated mucopolysaccharide in megakaryocytes and platelets of the rat: An analysis by electron microscope autoradiography, J. Cell Sci. 10: 705–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Maldonado, J. E., 1974, Dysplastic platelets and circulating megakaryocytes in chronic myeloproliferative diseases. II. Ultrastructure of circulating megakaryocytes, Blood 43: 811–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Martin, J. F., Slate, D. N., and Trowbridge, E. A., 1986, Evidence that platelets are produced in the pulmonary circulation by a physical process, Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 215: 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Martin, J. H., Carson, F. L., and Race, G. L., 1974, Calcium containing platelet granules, J. Cell Biol. 60: 775–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Martin, P., and Papayannopoulou, T., 1982, HEL cell: A new erythroleukemia cell line with spontaneous and induced globin expression, Science 216: 1233–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mazur, E. M., Hoffman, R., Chasis, J., Marchesi, S., and Bruno, E., 1981, Immunofluorescent identification of human megakaryocyte colonies using an antiplatelet glycoprotein antiserum, Blood 57: 277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Mazur, E. M., Cohen, J. L., Wong, G. G., and Clark, S. C., 1987, Modest stimulatory effect of recombinant human GM-CSF on colony growth from peripheral blood human megakaryocyte progenitor cells, Exp. Hematol. 15: 1128–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Mazur, E. M., Cohen, J. L., Bogart, L., Mufson, A., Gesner, T. G., Yang, Y. C., and Clark, S. C., 1988a, Recombinant gibbon interleukin 3 stimulates megakaryocyte colony growth in vitro from human peripheral blood progenitor cells, J. Cell. Physiol. 136: 439–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mazur, E. M., Cohen, J. L., and Bogart, L., 1988b, Growth characteristics of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells from patients with essential thrombocythemia, Blood 71: 1544–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mazur, E. M., Lindquist, D. L., De Alarcon, P. A., and Cohen, J. L., 1988c, Evaluation of bone marrow megakaryocyte ploidy distributions in persons with normal and abnormal platelet counts, J. Clin. Lab. Med. 111: 194–202.Google Scholar
  171. Mehta, A. B., Baughan, A. S. J., Catovsky, D., Goldman, J. M., Johnson, S. A., and Galton, D. A. G., 1983, Reversal of bone marrow fibrosis in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia after remission-induction and consolidation chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation, Br. J. Haematol. 53: 445–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Melamed, M. R., Clifton, E. E., Mercer, C., and Koss, L. G., 1966, The megakaryocyte blood count, Ann. J. Med. Sci. 252: 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Menard, M., and Meyers, K. M., 1988, Storage pool deficiency in cattle with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome results from an absence of dense granule precursors in their megakaryocytes, Blood 72: 1726–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Messner, H. A., Jamal, N., and Izaguirre, C., 1982, The growth of large megakaryocyte colonies from human bone marrow, J. Cell. Physiol. Suppl. 1: 45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Metcalf, D., McDonald, H. R., Odartchenko, N., and Sordat, B., 1975, Growth of mouse megakaryocyte colonies in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 1744–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Meyers, K. M., Hopkins, G., Holmsen, H., Benson, K., and Prieur, D. J., 1982, Ultrastructure of resting and activated storage pool deficient platelets from animals with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Am. J. Pathol. 106: 364–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Michiels, J. J., Prins, M. E., Hagermeijer, A., Brederoo, P., Van Der Meulen, J., Vanuliet, H. H., and Abel, J., 1987, Philadelphia chromosome positive thrombocythemia and megakaryoblastic leukemia, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 88: 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mitjavila, M. T., Vinci, G., Villeval, J. L., Kieffer, N., Henri, A., Testa, U., Breton-Gorius, J., and Vainchenker, W., 1988, Human platelet alpha granules contan a non specific inhibitor of megakaryocyte colony formation: Its relationship to type ß transforming growth factor, J. Cell. Physiol. 134: 93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Mori, K., Suzuki, S., and Sugai, K., 1984, Electron microscopic and functional studies on platelets in gray platelet syndrome, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 143: 261–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Nakeff, A., Valeriote, F., Gray, J. W., and Grabske, R. T., 1979, Application of flow cytometry and cell sorting to megakaryocytopoiesis, Blood 53: 732–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Novikoff, A. B., Novikoff, P. M., Davis, C., and Quintana, N., 1973, Studies on microperoxisomes. V. Are microperoxisomes ubiquitous in mammalian cells?, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21: 735–755.Google Scholar
  182. Nurden, A. T., Kunicki, T. J., Dupuis, D., Soria, C., and Caen, J. P., 1982, Specific protein and glycoprotein deficiencies in platelets isolated from two patients with the gray platelet syndrome, Blood 59: 709–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Odell, T. T., Jackson, C. W., and Friday, T. J., 1970, Megakaryocytopoiesis in rat with special reference to polyploidy, Blood 35: 775–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Ogura, M., Morishima, Y., Okumura, M., Hotta, T., Takamoto, S., Ohno, R., Hirabayashi, N., Nagura, H., Saito, H., 1988, Functional and morphological differentiation induction of a human megakaryoblastic cell line (Meg-01 S) by phorbol diesters, Blood 72: 49–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Oliveira, M. P., Gregory, C., Matutes, E., Parreira, A., and Catovski, D., 1987, Cytochemical profile of megakaryoblastic leukaemia: A study with cytochemical methods, monoclonal antibodies, and ultrastructural cytochemistry, J. Clin. Pathol. 40: 663–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Papayannopoulou, T., Nakamoto, B., Yokochi, T., Chait, A., and Kannagi, R., 1983, Human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL) undergoes a drastic macrophage-like shift with TPA, Blood 62: 832–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Papayannopoulou, T., Brice, M., Yokochi, T., Rabinovitch, P. S., and Stamatoyannopoulos, G., 1984, AntiHEL cell monoclonal antibodies recognize determinants that are also present in hemopoietic progenitors, Blood 63: 326–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Papayannopoulou, T., Raines, E., Collins, S., Nakamoto, B., Tweeddale, M., and Ross, R., 1987, Constitution and inducible secretion of platelet-derived growth factor analogs by human leukemia cell lines coexpressing erythroid and megakaryocytic markers, J. Clin. Invest. 79: 859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Papayannopoulou, T., Nakamoto, B., Kurachi, S., Tweeddale, M., and Messner, H., 1988, Surface antigenic profile and globin phenotype of two new human erythroleukemia lines: Characterization and interpretations, Blood 72: 1029–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Parmley, R. T., Poon, M. C., Crist, W. M., and Malluh, A., 1979, Giant platelet granules in a child with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, Am. J. Hematol. 6: 51–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Parsa, K. P., Lee, D. B. N., Zamboni, L., and Glassock, R. J., 1976, Hereditary nephritis, deafness and abnormal thrombopoiesis. Study of a new kindred, Am. J. Med. 60: 665–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Pasquale, A., Paterlini, P., Quaglino, D., and Quaglino, O., 1985, Emperipolesis of granulocytes within megakaryocytes, Br. J. Haematol. 60: 384–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Paulus, J. M., 1970, DNA metabolism and development of organelles in guinea pig megakaryocytes; a combined ultrastructural autoradiographic, and cytophotometric study, Blood 35: 298–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Paulus, J. M., Breton-Gorius, J., Kinet-Denoël, C., and Boniver, J., 1974, Megakaryocyte ultrastructure and ploidy in human macrothrombocytosis, in Platelet, Production, Function, Transfusion and Storage ( M. G. Baldini and S. Ebbe, eds.), pp. 131–141, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  195. Paulus, J. M., Maigne, J., and Keyhani, E., 1981, Mouse megakaryocytes secrete acetylcholinesterase, Blood 58: 1100–1106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Paulus, J. M., Prenant, M., Deschamps, J. F., and Henry-Amar, M., 1982, Polyploid megakaryocytes develop randomly from a multicompartmental system of committed progenitors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 4410–4414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Peterson, L. C., Rao, V., Crosson, J. T., and White, J. G., 1985, Fechtner syndrome. A variant of Alport’s syndrome with leukocyte inclusions and macrothrombocytopenia, Blood 65: 397–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pham, T. D., Kaplan, K. L., and Butler, V. P., 1983, Immunoelectron microscopic localization of platelet factor 4 and fibrinogen in the granules of human platelets, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 31: 905–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Poncz, M., Surrey, S., LaRocco, P., Weiss, M. J., Rappaport, E. F., Conway, T. M., and Schwartz, E., 1987a, Cloning and characterization of platelet factor 4 cDNA derived from a human erythroleukemic cell line, Blood 69: 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Poncz, M., Eisman, R., Heidenreich, R., Silver, S. M., Vilaire, G., Surrey, S., Schwartz, E., and Bennett, J. S., 1987b, Structure of the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb. Homology to the a subunits of the vitronectin and fibronectin membrane receptors, J. Biol. Chem. 262: 8476–8482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Prieur, D. J., and Collier, L. L., 1978, Chédiak-Higashi syndrome of animals, Am. J. Pathol. 90: 533–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Queisser, W., Queisser, U., Ansmann, M., Brunner, G., Hoelzer, D., and Heimpel, H., 1974, Megakaryocyte polyploidization in acute leukaemia and preleukaemia, Br. J. Haematol. 28: 261–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rabellino, E. M., Nachman, R. L., Williams, N., Winchester, R. J., and Ross, G. D., 1979, Human megakaryocytes. I. Characterization of the membrane and cytoplasmic components of isolated marrow megakaryocytes, J. Exp. Med. 149: 1273–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R. B., Leung, L. L. K., and Nachman, R. L., 1981, Human megakaryocytes. II. Expression of platelet proteins in early marrow megakaryocytes. J. Exp. Med. 154: 88–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Raccuglia, G., 1971, Gray platelet syndrome. A variety of qualitative platelet disorder, Am. J. Med. 5: 818–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Radley, J. M., and Haller, C. J., 1982, The demarcation membrane system of the megakaryocyte: A misnomer?, Blood 60: 213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Radley, J. M., and Haller, C. J., 1983, Fate and senescent megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, Br. J. Haematol. 53: 277–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Radley, J. M., and Hartshorn, M. A., 1987, Megakaryocyte fragments and the microtubule coil, Blood Cells 12: 603–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Radley, J. M., and Scurfield, G., 1980, The mechanism of platelet release, Blood 56: 996–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Reddington, M., Novak, E. K., Hurley, E., Medda, C., McGarry, M. F., and Swank, R. T., 1987, Immature dense granules in platelets from mice with platelet storage pool disease, Blood 69: 1300–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Rendu, F., Breton-Gorius, J., Rugnan, G., Castro-Malaspina, H., Andrieu, J. M., Bereziat, G., Lebret, M., and Caen, J., 1978, Studies on a new variant of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome: Qualitative, ultrastructural and functional abnormalities of the platelet dense bodies associated with a phospholipase A defect, Am. J. Hematol. 4: 387–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rendu, F., Breton-Gorius, J., Lebret, M., Klebanoff, C., Buriot, D., Griscelli, C., Levy-Toledano, S., and Caen, J. P., 1983, Evidence that abnormal platelet functions in human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome are the result of a lack of dense bodies, Am. J. Pathol. 111: 307–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Renner, D., Propp, H., and Queisser, W., 1987, Diploid and tetraploid precursors of megakaryocytes in normal human bone marrow detected by immunofluorescence, Blut 55: 459–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Richards, J. G., and Da Prada, M., 1977, Uranaffin reaction: A new cytochemical technique for the localization of adenine nucleotides in organelles storing biogenic amines, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25: 1322–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rimmer, E. F., and Horton, M. A., 1984, Expression of myeloid-specific antigens on two human erythroleukaemia cell lines, HEL and K 562, Leuk, Res. 8: 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Robinson, B. E., McGrath, H. G., and Quesenberry, P. J., 1987, Recombinant murine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor has megakaryocyte colony-stimulating activity and augments megakaryocyte colony stimulation by interleukin 3, J. Clin. Invest. 79: 1648–1652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rosa, J. P., George, J. N., Bainton, D. F., Nurden, A. T., Caen, J. P., and McEver, R. P., 1987, Gray platelet syndrome. Demonstration of alpha granule membranes that can fuse with the cell surface, J. Clin. Invest. 80: 1138–1146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rosa, J. P., Bray, P. F., Gayet, O., Johnston, G. I., Cook, R. G., Jackson, K. W., Shuman, M. A., and McEver, R. P., 1988, Cloning of glycoprotein IIIa cDNA from human erythroleukemia cells and localization of the gene to chromosome 17, Blood 72: 593–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Roth, B. J., Sledge, G. W., Straneva, J. E., Brandt, J., Gohenn, M., and Hoffman, R., 1988, Analysis of phorbol ester stimulated human megakaryocyte development, Blood 72: 202–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ruiz-Arguelles, G. J., Mann-Lopez, A., Lobato-Mensizàbal, E., Ruiz-Arguelles, A., Nichols, W. L., and Katzman, J. A., 1986, Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia: A prospective study of its identification and treatment, Br. J. Haematol. 62: 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Ryo, R., Proffitt, R. T., and Deuel, T. F., 1980, Human platelet factor 4: Subcellular localization and characteristics of release from intact platelets. Thromb. Res. 17: 629–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Ryo, R., Nakeff, A., Huang, S. S., Ginsberg, M., and Deuel, T. F., 1983, New synthesis of a platelet-specific protein: Platelet factor 4 synthesis in a megakaryocyte-enriched rabbit bone marrow culture system, J. Cell Biol. 96: 515–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Sander, H. J., Slot, J. W., Bouma, B. N., Bolhuis, P. A., Pepper, D. S., and Sixma, J. J., 1983, Immunocytochemical localization of fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin, in thin frozen sections of human blood platelets, J. Clin. Invest. 72: 1277–1287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. San Miguel, J. F., Tavares de Castro, J., Matutes, E., Rodriguez, B., Polli, N., Zola, H., McMichael, A. J., Bolum, F. J., and Thompson, D. S., 1985, Characterization of blast cells in chronic granulocytic leukaemia in transformation, acute myelofibrosis undifferentiated leukaemia. II. Studies with monoclonal antibodies and terminal transferase. Br. J. Haematol. 59: 297–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. San Miguel, J. F., Gonzalez, M., Canizo, M. C., Ojeda, E., Orfao, A., Caballero, M. D., Moro, M. J., Fisac, P., and Lopez-Borrasca, A., 1988, Leukemias with megakaryoblastic involvement: Clinical, hematologic and immunologic characteristics, Blood 72: 402–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Schick, P. K., and Weinstein, M., 1981, A marker for megakaryocyte: Serotonin accumulation in guinea pig megakaryocytes, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 98: 607–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Schick, B. P., Walsh, C., and Jenkins-West, T., 1988, Sulfated proteoglycans and sulfated proteins in guinea pig megakaryocytes and platelets in vivo, J. Biol. Chem. 263: 1052–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Seigneurin, D., Champelovier, P., Mouchiroud, G., Berthier, R., Leroux, D., Prenant, M., McGregor, J., Starck, J., Morle, F., Micouin, C., Pietrantuono, A., and Kolodie, L., 1987, Human chronic myeloid leukemic cell line with positive Philadelphia chromosome exhibits megakaryocytic and erythroid characteristics, Exp. Hematol. 15: 822–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Shaklai, M., and Tavassoli, M., 1978, Demarcation membrane system in rat megakaryocyte and the mechanism of platelet formation: A membrane reorganization process, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 62: 270–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Silver, S. M., McDonough, M. M., Vilaire, G., and Bennett, J. S., 1987, The in vitro synthesis of polypeptides for the membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa, Blood 69: 1031–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sixma, J. J., Van Den Berg, A., Schiphort, M., Geuze, H. J., and McDonagh, J., 1984, Immunocytochemical localization of albumin and factor XIII in thin cryosections of human blood platelets, Thromb. Haemostasis 51: 388–391.Google Scholar
  232. Sixma, J. J., Van Den Berg, A., Hasilik, A., von Figura, K., and Geuze, H. J., 1985, Immuno-electron microscopical demonstration of lysosomes in human blood platelets and megakaryocytes using anti-cathepsin D., Blood 65: 1287–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Skaer, R. J., Peters, P. D., and Emmines, J. P., 1974, The localization of calcium and phosphorus in human platelets, J. Cell Sci. 15: 679–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Skaer, R. J., Fleman, R. J., and McQuilkan, S., 1981, Mepacrine stains the dense bodies of human platelets and not platelet lysosomes, Br. J. Haematol. 49: 435–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Slater, D. N., Trowbridge, E. A., and Martin, J. F., 1983, The megakaryocyte in thrombocytopenia: A light and electron microscope study supporting the theory that all platelets are produced in the lungs, Thromb. Res. 31: 163–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Smith, W. B., Ablin, A., Goodman, J. R., and Brecher, G., 1973, Atypical megakaryocytes in preleukemic phase of acute myeloid leukemia, Blood 42: 535–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Sokal, G. T., Michaux, J. L., Van Den Berghe, H., Cordier, A., Rodhain, J., Ferrant, A., Moriau, M., De Bruyere, M., and Sonnet, J., 1975, A new hematologic syndrome with a distinct karyotype: The 5qchromsome, Blood 46: 519–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Sosnoski, D. M., Emanuel, B. S., Hawkins, A. L., Van Tuinen, P., Ledbetter, D. H., Nussbaum, R. L., Kaos, F. T., Schwartz, E., Phillips, D., Bennett, J. S., Fitzgerald, L. A., and Poncz, M., 1988, Chromosome localization of the genes for the vitronectin and fibronectin receptors a subunits and for platelet glycoproteins fib and Ma, J. Clin. Invest. 81: 1993–1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Sporn, L. E., Chavin, S. I., Marder, V. J., and Wagner, D. D., 1985, Biosynthesis of von Willebrand protein by human megakaryocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 76: 1102–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Srivastava, P. C., Powling, M. J., Nokes, T. J. C., Patrick, A. D., Dawes, J., and Hardisty, R. M., 1987, Grey platelet syndrome: Studies on platelet alpha-granules lysosomes and defective response to thrombin, Br. J. Haematol. 65: 441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Stenberg, P. E., 1986, Ultrastructural organization of maturing megakaryocytes, in Megakaryocyte Development and Function ( R. Levine, N. Williams, J. Levin, and B. Evatt, eds.), pp. 373–386, Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  242. Stenberg, P. E., Shuman, M. A., Levine, S. P., and Bainton, D. F., 1984, Optimal techniques for the immunocytochemical demonstration of 13 thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4 and fibrinogen in the alpha granules of unstimulated platelets, Histochem. J. 16: 983–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Stenberg, P. E., McEver, R. P., Shuman, M. A., Jacques, Y. V., and Bainton, D. F., 1985, A platelet alpha granule membrane protein (GMP-140) is expressed on the plasma membrane after activation, J. Cell Biol. 101: 880–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Stenberg, P. E., Beckstead, J. H., McEver, R. P., and Levin, J., 1986, Immunohistochemical localization of membrane and a-granule proteins in plastic-embedded mouse bone marrow megakaryocytes and murine megakaryocyte colonies, Blood 58: 696–702.Google Scholar
  245. Straneva, J. E., Yang, H. H., Hui, S. L., Bruno, E., and Hoffman, R., 1987, Effects of megakaryocyte colony-stimulating factor on terminal cytoplasmic maturation of human megakaryocytes. Exp. Hematol. 55: 657–663.Google Scholar
  246. Suda, J., Eguchi, M., Ozawa, T., Furukawa, T., Hayashi, Y., Kojima, S., Maeda, H., Tadokoro, K., Sato, Y., Miura, Y., Ohara, A., and Suda, T., 1988, Platelet peroxidase-positive blast cells in transient myeloproliferative disorder with Down’s syndrome, Br. J. Haematol. 68: 181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Sultan, C., Sigaux, F., Imbert, M., and Reyes, F., 1981, Acute myelodysplasia with myelofibrosis: A report of eight cases, Br. J. Haematol. 49: 11–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sunami, S., Fuse, A., Simizu, B., Eguchi, M., Hayashi, Y., Sugita, K., Nakazawa, S., Okimoto, Y., Sato, T., and Nakajima, H., 1987, The c-sis gene expression in cells from a patient with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia and Down’s syndrome, Blood 70: 368–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Tabilio, A., Pelicci, P., Vinci, G., Mannoni, P., Civin, C. J., Vainchenker, W., Testa, U., Lipinski, M., Rochant, H., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1983, Myeloid and megakaryocytic properties of K562 cell lines, Cancer Res. 454: 4569–4574.Google Scholar
  250. Tabilio, A., Vainchenker, W., Van Haeke, D., Vinci, G., Guichard, J., Henri, A., Reyes, F., and BretonGorius, J., 1984a, Immunological characterization of the leukemic megakaryocytic line at light and electron microscopic levels, Leuk. Res. 8: 769–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Tabilio, A., Rosa, J. P., Testa, U., Kieffer, N., Nurden, A. T., Del Caíiizo, M. C., Breton-Gorius, J., and Vainchenker, W., 1984b, Expression of platelet membrane glycoproteins and a granule proteins by a human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL), EMBO J. 3: 453–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Tavassoli, M., 1980, Megakaryocyte-platelet axis and the process of platelet formation and release, Blood 55: 537–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Tavassoli, M., 1986, Modulation of megakaryocyte emperipolesis by phlebotomy: Megakaryocytes as a component of marrow blood barrier, Blood Cells 12: 205–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Tavassoli, M., and Aoki, M., 1981, Migration of entire megakaryocytes through the marrow blood barrier, Br. J. Haematol. 48: 25–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Tayrien, G., and Rosenberg, R. D., 1987, Purification and properties of a megakaryocyte stimulatory factor present both in the serum-free conditioned medium of human embryonic kidney cells and in thrombocytopenic plasma, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 3262–3268.Google Scholar
  256. Tetteroo, P. A. T., Massaro, F., Mulder, A., Schreuder-Van Gelder, R., and Von Den Borne, A. E. G., 1984, Megakaryoblastic differentiation of proerythroblastic K562 cell line cells, Leuk. Res. 8: 197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Thiele, J., Stangel, W., Vykoupil, K. F., and Georgii, S., 1979, Polycythemia vera: Electron microscopy of the bone marrow in 10 patients. A thin section and freeze-fracture study, Blut 38: 407–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Thiery, J. P., and Bessis, M., 1956, Mécanisme de la plaquettogénèse. Etude in vitro par la microcinématographie, Rev. Hématol. 11: 162–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Tinggaard-Pedersen, N., 1974, The pulmonary vessels as a filter form circulating megakaryocytes in rat, Scand. J. Haematol. 13: 225–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Tinggaard-Pedersen, N., 1978, Occurrence of megakaryocytes in various vessels and their retention in the pulmonary capillaries in man, Scand. J. Haematol. 21: 369–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Tomer, A., Harker, L. A., and Burstein, S. A., 1987, Purification of human megakaryocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, Blood 70: 1735–1742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Tomer, A., Harker, L. A., and Burstein, S. A., 1988, Flow cytometric analysis of normal human megakaryocytes, Blood 71: 1244–1252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Tong, M., Seth, P., and Penington, D. G., 1987, Proplatelets and stress platelets, Blood 69: 522–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Tranum-Jensen, J., and Behnke, O., 1981, Acetylcholinesterase in the platelet megakaryocyte system. II. Structural localization in megakaryocytes of the rat, mouse and cat, Eur. J. Cell. Biol. 24: 281–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Tranzer, J. P., Da Prada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1966, Ultrastructural localization of 5-hydroxytryptamine in blood platelets, Nature (London) 212: 1574–1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Tranzer, J. P., Da Prada, M., and Pletscher, A., 1972, Storage of 5-hydroxytryptamine in megakaryocytes, J. Cell Biol. 52: 191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Trowbridge, E. A., 1988, Pulmonary platelet production: A physical analogue of mitosis?, Blood Cells 13: 451–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Vainchenker, W., and Kieffer, N., 1988, Human megakaryocytopoiesis: In vitro regulation and characterization of megakaryocytic precursor cells by differentiation markers, Blood Rev. 2: 102–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Vainchenker, W., Guichard, J., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1979a, Growth of human megakaryocyte colonies in culture from fetal, neonatal and adult peripheral blood cells. Ultrastructural analysis, Blood Cells 5: 25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Vainchenker, W., Bouguet, J., Guichard, J., and Breton-Gorius, 19796, Megakaryocyte colony formation from human bone marrow precursors, Blood 54: 940–945.Google Scholar
  271. Vainchenker, W., Breton-Gorius J., and Chapman, J., 1981, Induction of human megakaryocyte colonies in vitro and ultrastructural aspects of their maturation, in Megakaryocyte Biology and Precursors ( B. Evatt, R. Levine, and N. Williams, eds.), pp. 139–160, Elsevier North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  272. Vainchenker, W., Deschamps, J. F., Bastin, J. M., Guichard, J., Titeux, M., Breton-Gorius, J., and McMichael, A. J., 1982a, Two monoclonal antiplatelet antibodies as markers of human megakaryocyte maturation: Immunofluorescent staining and platelet peroxidase detection in megakaryocyte colonies and in in vivo cells from normal and leukemic patients, Blood 59: 514–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Vainchenker, W., Testa, U., Deschamps, J. F., Henri, A., Titeux, M., Breton-Gorius, J., Rochant, H., Lee, D., and Cartron, J. P., 1982b, Clonal expression of the Tn antigen in erythroid and granulocytic colonies and its application to determination of the clonality of the human megakaryocyte colony assay, J. Clin. Invest. 69: 1081–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Vannucchi, A. M., Grossi, A., Rafanelli, D., Vannucchi, L., and Ferrini, P. R., 1988, Serotonin incorporation as a marker of murine megakarocyte proliferation in liquid cultures, Exp. Hematol. 16: 916–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Villeval, J. L., Pelicci, P. G., Tabilio, A., Titeux, M., Henri, A., Louache, F., Thomopoulos, P., Vainchenker, W., Garbaz, M., Rochant, H., Breton-Groius, J., Edwards, P. A. W., and Testa, U., 1983, Erythroid properties of K 562 cells: Effect of hemin, butyrate and TPA induction, Exp. Cell. Res. 146: 428–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Vinci, G., Tabilio, A., Deschamps, J. F., Van Haeke, D., Henri, A., Guichard, J., Tetteroo, P., Lansdorp, P. M., Hercend, T., Vainchenker, W., and Breton-Gorius, J., 1984, Immunological study of in vitro maturation of human megakaryocytes, Br. J. Haematol. 56: 589–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Wagner, D. D., Olmsted, J. B., and Marder, V. J., 1982, Immunolocalization of von Willebrand protein in Weibel-Palade bodies of human endothelial cells, J. Cell Biol. 95: 355–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wakefield, L. M., Smith, D. M., Flanders, K. C., and Sporn, M. B., 1988, Latent transforming growth factor ß from human platelets. A high molecular weight complex containing precursor sequences, J. Biol. Chem. 263: 7646–7664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Weibel, E. R., and Palade, G. E., 1964, New cytoplasmic components in arterial endothelia, J. Cell Biol. 23: 101–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Weiss, H. J., 1980, Congenital disorders of platelet function, Semin. Hematol. 17: 228–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Weiss, H. J., Witte, L. D., Kaplan, K. L., Lages, B. A., Chernoff, A., Nossel, H. L., Goodman, D. S., and Baumgartner, H. P., 1979, Heterogeneity in storage pool deficiency: Studies on granule-bound substances in 18 patients including variants deficient in a-granules, platelet factor 4, ß-thromboglobulin, and platelet-derived growth factor, Blood 54: 1296–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Wencel-Drake, J. D., Printer, R. G., Zimmerman, T. S., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1985, Ultrastructural localization of human thrombospondin, fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor in frozen thin section, Blood 65: 929–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Wencel-Drake, J. D., Plow, E. F., Kunicki, T. J., Woods, V. L., Keller, D. M., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1986a, Localization of internal pools of membrane glycoproteins involved in platelet adhesive responses, Am. J. Pathol. 124: 324–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Wencel-Drake, J. D., Dahlback, B., White, J. G., and Ginsberg, M. H., 1986b, Ultrastructural localization of coagulation factor V in human platelets, Blood 68: 244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. White, J. G., 1968, The dense bodies of human platelets. Origin of serotonin storage particles from platelet granules, Am. J. Pathol. 53: 791–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. White, J. G., 1971, Serotonin storage organelles in human megakaryocytes, Am. J. Pathol. 63: 403–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. White, J. G., 1972, Interaction of membrane systems in blood platelets, Am. J. Pathol. 66: 295–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. White, J. G., 1979, Ultrastructural studies of the gray platelet syndrome, Am. J. Pathol. 95: 445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. White, J. G., and Gerrard, J. M., 1976, Ultrastructural features of abnormal blood platelets, Am. J. Pathol. 83: 590–632.Google Scholar
  290. White, J. G., Witkop, G. J., and Gerritsen, S. M., 1972, The Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Ultrastructure of bone marrow macrophage, Am. J. Pathol. 70: 329–344.Google Scholar
  291. Williams, N., Egger, R. R., Jackson, H. M., and Nelson, D. J., 1982, Two factor requirement for murine megakaryocyte colony formation, J. Cell Physiol. 110: 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Williams, W. C., and Weiss, G. B., 1982, Megakaryoblastic transformation of chronic myelogenous leukemia, Cancer 48: 921–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Witte, D. P., Harris, A. E., Jenski, L. J., and Lampkin, B. C., 1986, Megakaryoblastic leukemia in an infant. Establishment of a megakaryocytic tumor cell line in athymic nude mice, Cancer 58: 238–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Witte, D. P., Strambrook, P. J., Feliciano, E., Jones, C. L. A., and Lieberman, M. A., 1988, Growth factor production by a human megakaryocytic tumor cell line, J. Cell. Physiol. 137: 86–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Woessner, S., Lafuente, R., Florensa, L., Vilà, R. M., and Sans-Sabrafen, J., 1986, Acquired refractory anaemia with excess of blasts of promegakaryoblastic type, Blut 53: 293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Wolf, J. L., Spruce, W. E., Bearman, R. M., Forman, S. J., Scott, E. P., Fahex, J. L., Farbstein, M. J., Rappaport, H., and Blume, K. G., 1982, Reversal of acute (“malignant”) myelosclerosis by allogenic bone marrow transplantation, Blood 59: 191–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Wright, J. H., 1906, The origin and nature of blood platelets, Boston Med. Surg. J. 154: 643–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wright, J. H., 1910, The histogenesis of blood platelets, J. Morphol. 21: 263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Yamada, E., 1957, The fine structure of the megakaryocyte in the mouse spleen, Acta Anat. 29: 267–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Young, K. M., and Weiss, L., 1987, Megakaryocytopoiesis: incorporation of tritiated thymidine by small acetylcholinesterase-positive cells in murine bone marrow during antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, Blood 69: 290–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Zimrin, A. B., Eisman, R., Vilaire, G., Schartz, E., Bennett, J. S., and Poncz, M., 1988, Structure of platelet glycoprotein IIIa. A common subunit for two different membrane receptors, J. Clin. Invest. 81: 1470–1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Zucker, M. B., Broekman, M. J., and Kaplan, K. L., 1979, Factor VIII-related antigen in human blood platelets. Localisation and release by thrombin and collagen, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94: 675–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Zucker-Franklin, D., 1981, Megakaryocytes and platelets, in Atlas of Blood Cells: Function and Pathology, Vol. 2 ( D. Zucker-Franklin, M. E. Greaves, and M. Marmont, eds.), pp. 557–602, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  304. Zucker-Franklin, D., and Petursson, S., 1984, Thrombocytopoiesis: Analysis by membrane tracer and freezefracture studies on fresh human and cultured mouse megakaryocytes, J. Cell Biol. 99: 390–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janine Breton-Gorius
    • 1
  1. 1.Hospital Henri MondorUnité 91 INSERMCreteilFrance

Personalised recommendations