Chitin and Chitosan: Ecologically Bioactive Polymers
Chitinase and lysozyme activities were stimulated by treating with chitin, chitosan, or derivatives in a culture of plant and animal cells. (1) Chitinase activity was stimulated about 1.5 times by treating with chitin or chitosan in the calluses of rice, cabbage leaves and soybean. (2) Two chitinase isozymes were detected in untreated rice callus, and an additional isozyme was detected in rice callus treated with o-carboxymethylchitin. (3) Radish seed chitinase was stimulated 1.3 times by coating with low-molecularchitosan (d.p. 20) or chitosan-oligosaccharides (d.p. 2–9) at the growing stage of germination. (4) Extracellular lysozyme activity was stimulated by chitin or chitin-oligosaccharides (d.p. 7,8) in the culture of chicken embryo fibroblast cells. (5) Serum lysozyme activity was enhanced by intravenous injection of chitosan-oligosaccharides (d.p. 2–9). A mechanism for the induction of chitinase isozyme in plant cells was proposed, its ecological significance was discussed, and some applications in the field of biotechnology were described.
KeywordsChitinase Activity Lysozyme Activity Crude Enzyme Extract Chitosan Derivative Rice Callus
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