Advertisement

Focal and Vectorial Magnetic Stimulation of the Human Brain

  • Shoogo Ueno

Abstract

Magnetic nerve stimulation has been studied for almost a century. Successful magnetic stimulation of the human brain was reported by Barker et al. in 1985. Since then, many further developments have taken place. We have developed a method of focal and vectorial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. In this chapter, we describe our early and more recent work in that area. We also propose a model of neural excitation elicited by magnetic brain stimulation; the model explains our observation that the optimal direction of stimulating current vectors for neural excitation reflects both the functional and anatomical organization of neural fibers in the brain.

Keywords

Motor Cortex Magnetic Stimulation Eddy Current Pulse Magnetic Field Thenar Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. D’Arsonval, Dispotifs pour la mesure des courants alternatifs des toutes frequences, C.R. Acad. Sci., 48: 450–451 (1896).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.G. Bickford and B.D. Fremming, Neuronal stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields in animals and man, Dig. 6th Int. Conf. Med. Electr. Biol. Eng. 112 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.D. Irwin, S. Rush, R. Evering, E. Lepeschkin, D.B. Montgomery, and R.J. Weggel, Stimulation of cardiac muscle by a time-varying magnetic field, IEEE Trans. Magnetics MAG-6, 321–322 (June 1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.A. Maass and M.M. Asa, Contactless nerve stimulation and signal detection by inductive transducer, IEEE Trans. Magnetics MAG-6, 322–326 (June 1970).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.A. Öberg, Magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, Med. Biol. Eng. 11: 55–64 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Ueno, S. Matsumoto, K. Harada and Y. Oomura, Capacitative stimulatory effect in magnetic stimulation of nerve tissue, IEEE Trans. Magnetics MAG-14, 958–960 (Sept. 1978).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Ueno, P. Lövsund and P.A. Öberg, On the effect of alternating magnetic fields on action potential in lobster giant axon, Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Meeting on Med. and Biol. Eng., Linköping, Sweden, 262–264 (1981).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Ueno, P. Lövsund and P.A. Öberg, Effects of time-varying magnetic fields on the action potential in lobster giant axon, Med. and Biol. Eng. and Comput. 24: 521–526 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Ueno, K. Harada, C. Ji, and Y. Oomura, Magnetic nerve stimulation without interlinkage between nerve and magnetic flux, IEEE Trans. Magnetics, MAG-20, 1660–1662 (Sept. 1984).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.T. Barker, R. Jalinous, and I.L. Freeston, Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex, The Lancet, i.: 1106–1107 (May 1985).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.T. Barker, I.L. Freeston, R. Jalinous, and J.A. Jarratt, Clinical evaluation of conduction time measurements in central motor pathways using magnetic stimulation of the human brain, The Lancet, i.: 1325–1326 (June 1986).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.T. Barker, I.L. Freeston, R. Jalinous, and J.A. Jarratt, Magnetic stimulation of the human brain and peripheral nervous system: An introduction and results of an initial clinical evaluation, Neurosurgery, 20 (No. 1): 100–109 (Jan. 1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.L. Day, P.D. Thompson, J.P. Dick, K. Nakashima, and C.D. Marsdes, Different sites of action of electrical and magnetic stimulation of the human brain, Neuroscience Letters, 75: 101–106 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.W. Hess, K.R. Mills, and N.M.F. Murray, Measurement of central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis by magnetic brain stimulation, The Lancet, 397–419 (1987).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.W. Hess, K.R. Mills, and N.M.F. Murray, Responses in small hand muscles from magnetic stimulation of the human brain, J. Physiol., 388: 397–419 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K.R. Mills, N.M.F. Murray, and C.W. Hess, Magnetic and electrical transcranial brain stimulation, Physiological mechanisms and clinical applications, Neurosurgery, 20 (No.1): 164–168 (Jan. 1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.C. Rothwell, B.L. Day, P.D. Thompson, J.P.R. Dick, and C.D. Marsden, Some experiences of techniques for stimulation of the human cerebral motor cortex through the scalp, Neurosurgery, 20 (No. 1): 156–163 (Jan. 1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Ueno, T. Tashiro and K. Harada, Localized stimulation of neural tissues in the brain by means of paired configuration of time-varying magnetic fields, J. Appl. Phys. 64: 5862–5864 (Nov. 1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda, M. Fujiki and S. Hori, Localized stimulation of the human motor cortex by means of a pair of opposing magnetic fields, Digests of Intermag Conf., GD-10, Washington D.C., ( March 1989 ).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda and M. Fujiki, Localized stimulation of the human cortex by opposing magnetic fields, in: “Advances in Biomagnetism,” S.J. Williamson et al., eds., Plenum Press, New York and London (1989).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda and M. Fujiki, “Localized stimulation of the human brain by a pair of opposing pulsed magnetic fields, Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering–Kyushu University, 49: 161–173 (Sept. 1989).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda and M. Fujiki, Functional mapping of the human motor cortex obtained by focal and vectorial magnetic stimulation of the brain, IEEE Trans. on Magn., 26 (No. 5): 1539–1544 (Sept. 1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda and O. Hiwaki, Localized stimulation of the human brain and spinal cord by a pair of opposing pulsed magnetic fields, J. Appl. Phys. 66: 5838–5840 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Ueno, T. Matsuda and O. Hiwaki, Estimation of structures of neural fibers in the human brain by vectorial magnetic stimulation, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27 (No. 6): 5387–5389 (Nov. 1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Ueno, T. Tashiro, S. Kamise, T. Oosako and K. Harada, A paired-coil configuration for localized hyperthermia of deep tissues, Digests of Intermag Conf., BD-3, St. Paul, Minnesota, (April 1985).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Ueno, T. Tashiro, S. Kamise and K. Harada, Localized hyperthermia by means of a paired-coil configuration: calculation of current distributions in cubical model, IEEE Trans. Magn., MAG-23: 2437–2439 (Sept. 1987).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.P. Reilly, Peripheral nerve stimulation by induced electric currents: exposure to time-varying magnetic fields, Medical and Biol. Eng. and Comput. 27: 101–110 (March 1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Frankenhaeuser and A.L. Huxley, The action potential in the myelinated nerve fiber of Xenopus Laevis as computed on the basis of voltage clamp data, J. Physiol. 171: 302–315 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B.J. Roth and P.J. Basser, A model of stimulation of a nerve fiber by electromagnetic induction, IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng. 37 (No. 6): 588–597 (June 1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shoogo Ueno
    • 1
  1. 1.Biomagnetics and Biosystems Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Communication EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuoka 812Japan

Personalised recommendations