The Biology of Personality Disorders

  • Oren Kalus
  • Larry J. Siever
Part of the The Depressive Illness Series book series (DISS, volume 4)

Abstract

In acknowledging the many possible contributions to personality traits and personality symptoms many therapists refer to them as “multiply determined.” Though they usually refer to the trait’s psychological determinants, current formulations can no longer overlook the potential biological contributions to behavior as well. From Hippocrates (Meltzek, 1969; Klar, 1988) to the present, clinicians and theoreticians have appreciated that biological factors, variously described as constitutional, innate, or temperamental, contributed to personality psychopathology. Only recently, however, did the requisite methodology become available to identify and quantify biological correlates of personality in a more rigorous manner.

Keywords

Depression Lithium Dopamine Schizophrenia Serotonin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akiskal HS, Yerevarian BI, Davis GE, et al.: The nosologic status of borderline personality: Clinical and polysomnographic study. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142: 192–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Asberg M, Schalling D, Traksman-Bendz L, et al: Psychobiology of suicide, impulsivity, and related phenomena. In: Meltzer HY (Ed.) Psychopharmacology Generation of Progress. New York: Raven Press, 1987; 655–688.Google Scholar
  3. Aston-Jones G, Bloom, RE: Norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats exhibit pronounced responses to non-noxious environmental stimuli. J Neurosci 1981; 1: 887–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartlett JC, Santruck JW: Affect-dependent episodic memory in young children. Child Dey 1979; 50: 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown GL, Ebert MH, Goyer PF, et al: Aggression, suicide, and serotonin rela- tionships to CSF amine metabolites. Am J Psychiatry 1982; 139: 741–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron M, Gruen R, Asnis L, et al: Familial transmission of schizotypal and borderline personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1985; 142: 927–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell J, Grummet M, Lycaki H, et al: The effect of borderline personality disorder on sleep EEG state and trait markers of depressions. Abstracts of the Society of Biologic Psychiatry, 1983, pp. 98.Google Scholar
  8. Braff DL: Impaired speed of information processing in nonmedicated schizo-typal patients. Schizo Bull 1981; 7: 699–506.Google Scholar
  9. Braff DL, Geyer MA: Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia: Human and animal model studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charney DS, Nelson JC, Quinlan DM: Personality traits and disorder in depression. Am J Psychiatry 1981; 138: 1601–1605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Claridge G: Origins of Mental Illness. New York: Blackwell, 1985.Google Scholar
  12. Claridge G: Personality and Arousal. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  13. Cloninger RC: A unified theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states. Psychiat Dey 1986; 3: 167–226.Google Scholar
  14. Cloninger CR, Christiansen KO, Reich T, et al: Implications of sex differences in the prevalence of antisocial personality, alcoholism, and criminality for familial transmission. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978; 35: 941–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coccaro EF, Siever LJ, Klar H, et al: Serotonergic studies in patients with affective and personality disorders correlates with suicidal and impulsive aggressive behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46: 587–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornblatt BA, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L: Global attentional deviance as a marker of risk for schizophrenia: Specificity and predictive validity. J Abn Psychol 1985; 94: 470–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coryell WH, Zimmerman M: Personality disorder in the families of depressed, schizophrenic, and never-ill probands. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146: 496–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cowdry RW, Gardner DL: Pharmacology of borderline personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982; 139: 741–746.Google Scholar
  19. Davis KL, Davidson M, Mohs RC, et al: Plasma homovanillic add concentrations and the severity of schizophrenic illness. Science 1985; 227: 1601–1602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eysenck HJ: The Biological Basis of Personality. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1967. Eysenck HJ, Nias DKB, Cox DN: Sports and personality. Adv Behav Res Ther 1982; 4: 1–56.Google Scholar
  21. Gardner, DL, Cowdry RW: Positive effects of carbamazepine on behavioral dyscontrol in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143: 519–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldsmith HH: Genetic influences on personality from infancy to adulthood. Child Dev 1982; 54: 331–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldberg SC, Schulz SC, Schulz PM: Borderline and schizotypal personality disorder treated with low-dose thiothixine vs placebo. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986; 43: 680–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gorenstein EE: Frontal lobe functions in psychopaths. J Abn Psychol 1982; 91: 368–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gray JA: The Neuropsychology of Anxiety. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. Gunderson JG, Siever LJ, Spaulding E: The search for a schizotype: Crossing the border again. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 40: 15–22.Google Scholar
  26. Hare RD: Electrodermal and cardiovascular correlates of psychopathy. In: Hare RD, Schalling D (Eds.) Psychopathic Behavior: Approaches to Research. New York, Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  27. Hodge GK, Butcher LT: Catecholamine correlates of isolation-induced aggression in mice. J Pharmacol 1975; 51: 81–93.Google Scholar
  28. Holzman PS, Solomon CM, Levin S, Waternaux CS: Pursuit eye movement dysfunctions in schizophrenia: Family evidence for specificity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984; 41: 136–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Insel TR, Zohar J: Psychopharmacologic approaches to obsessive compulsive disorder. In Meltzer H, (Ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress New York: NY: Raven Press, 1987, 1205–1209.Google Scholar
  30. Klar H, Siever LJ, Coccaro E: Psychobiologic approaches to personality and its disorder: An overview. J Personality Disord 1988; 2: 334–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kagan J, Reznick S, Snidman N, et al: Childhood derivatives of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar. Child Dev 1988; 59: 1580–1589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kahn RS, et al: Behavioral indications for serotonin receptor hypersensitivity in panic disorder. Psychiat Res 1988; 25: 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lawrence TL, Coccaro EF, Siever LJ, et al: Borderline personality disorder as an impulsive personality disorder: A psychobiological perspective. Unpublished manuscript, 1990.Google Scholar
  34. Links PS, Steiner M, Huxley G: The occurrence of borderline personality disor- der in the families of borderline patients. J Personality Disord 1988; 2: 14–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kalus O, Siever LJ, Coccaro EF, et al: Dopaminergic dysfunction in schizotypal personality disorders. New Research Abstracts of the American Psychiatric Association, 1990.Google Scholar
  36. Kendler KS, Guenberg AM, Strauss JJ: An independent analysis of the Copenhagen sample of the Danish Adoption Study of Schizophrenia. V: The relationship between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38: 892–984.Google Scholar
  37. Lawrence TL, Coccaro EF, Bernstein DP, et al: Biological correlates of impulsivity/aggression. New Research Abstracts of the American Psychiatric Association, Abstract No. 97, 1990.Google Scholar
  38. Liebowitz MR, Klein DF: Interrelationship of hysteroid dysphoria and borderline personality disorder. Psychiat Clin N Am 1981; 4: 67–87.Google Scholar
  39. Linnoila M, Virkkunen M, Scheinin M, et al: Low cerebrospinal fluid 5hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration differentiates impulsive from non-impulsive violent behavior. Life Sci 1983; 33: 2609–2614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meltzek JN, Lyons MD: (Eds.) Hippocrates on endemic diseases Cambridge: Hedberg & Sons, 1969, Vol. 5.Google Scholar
  41. McNamara E, Reynolds CF III, Soloff PH, et al: EEG sleep evaluation of depression in borderline patients. Am J Psychiatry 1984; 141: 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Nurnberger J Jr, Berrettini W, Mendelson W, et al: Measuring cholinergic sensitivity: I. Arecoline effects in bipolar patients. Biol Psychiatry 1989; 25: 610–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Neuchterlein KH: Signal detection in vigilance tasks and behavioral attributes among offspring of schizophrenic mothers and among hyperactive children. J Abn Psychol 1983; 92: 4–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Norden MJ: Fluoxetine in borderline personality disorder. Prog Neuropharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1989; 13: 885–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pickar D, Labarca R, Doran AR, et al: Longitudinal measurement of plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients: Correlations with psychosis and response with neuroleptics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986; 43: 669–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roy A, De Jong J, Linnoila M: Extraversion in pathological gamblers correlates with indexes of noradrenergic function. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46: 679–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rifkin A, Quitkin F, Carillo C: Lithium carbonate in emotionally unstable character disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972; 27: 519–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Redmond DE: Studies of the nucleus locus coeruleus in monkeys and hypotheses for neuropsychopharmacology. In Meltzer H (Ed.) Neuropsychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress New York: Raven Press, 1987, Chap. 95, 967–975.Google Scholar
  49. Schulz SC, Schulz PM, Dommissee C, et al: Amphetamine response in borderline patients. Psychiatry Res 1985; 15: 97–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schulz PM, Soloff PH, Kelly T et al: A family history of borderline subtypes. J Pers Disord 1989; 3: 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Siegel C, Waldo M, Miznar G, et al: Deficits in sensory gating in schizophrenic patients and their relatives: Evidence obtained with auditory evoked responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984; 41: 607–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Siever LJ, Coccaro EF, Zemishlany Z et al: Psychobiology of personality disorder: Pharmacologic implications. Psychopharmacol Bull 1987; 23: 333–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Siever LJ, Coursey RD, Alterman IS et al: Clinical, psychophysiological, and neurological characteristics of volunteers with impaired smooth pursuit eye movements. Biol Psychiatry 1989; 26: 35–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Siever LJ: Biological markers in schizotypal personality disorder. Schizo Bull 1985; 11: 564–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Siever LJ, Keefe R, Bernstein DP, et al: Eye tracking impairment in clinically identified schizotypal personality disorder patients. Am J Psychiatry 1990; 147: 740–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Siever LJ, Silverman JM, Horvath TB, et al: Increased morbid risk for schizophrenia-related disorders in relatives of schizotypal personality disordered patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 634–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Silverman JM, Siever LJ, Mohs RC, et al: Risk for affective and personality disorders in relatives of personality disordered patients. Abstracts of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, 1987.Google Scholar
  58. Simons RF, Watkins W: Smooth pursuit eye movements in subjects, reporting physical anhedonia and perceptual aberrations. Psychiat Res 1985; 14: 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soloff PH, George A, Nathan RS: The dexamethasone suppression test in patients with borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1982; 139: 1621–1623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Soloff PH, George A, Nathan RS: Progress in pharmacotherapy of borderline disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983; 43: 698–700.Google Scholar
  61. Sternbach HA, Fleming Exteen I, et al: The dexamethasone suppression and thyrotropin-releasing hormone tests in depressed borderline patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1983; 8: 459–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sulser F: Serotonin-norepinephrine receptor interactions in the brain: Implications for the pharmacology and pathophysiology of affective disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 1987; 48 (suppl3): 12–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Tellegen A, Lykken DT, Bouchard TJ Jr, et al: Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. J Pers Soc Psychol 1988; 54: 1031–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thomas A, Chess S, Birch HG, et al: Behavioral Individuality in Early Childhood. New York: New York University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  65. Torgersen S: Genetic and nosological aspects of schizotypal and borderline personality disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984; 41: 546–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Trestman R, Teicher M, Coccaro E, Bernstein D, Gabriel S, Knott P, Siever LJ: Disruptions of noradrenergic and neuroendocrine rhythms in depression. Abstracts of The Society of Biological Psychiatry, 1990.Google Scholar
  67. Valzelli L: Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence. New York: Raven Press, 1981. Widiger T, Hyler S: Axis I/Axis II interactions. In Michels R, Cavenar J (Eds.) Psychiatry, New York: Lippincott, 1987.Google Scholar
  68. Yudofsky SC, Williams D, Gorman J: Propranolol in the treatment of rage and violent behavior in patients with chronic brain syndromes. Am J Psychiatry 1981; 138: 218–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Zanarini MC, Gunderson JG, Marino MF, et al: DSM-III disorders in the families of borderline outpatients. J Pers Disord 1988; 2: 292–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zuckerman M: Sensation-Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oren Kalus
    • 1
  • Larry J. Siever
    • 2
  1. 1.Fair Oaks HospitalSummitUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryBronx Veterans Administration Medical Center and The Mount Sinai School of MedicineBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations