Sleep Disorders in Depressive Disorders

  • Daniel J. Buysse
  • David J. Kupfer
Part of the The Depressive Illness Series book series (DISS, volume 3)


The relationship between sleep and mood holds considerable promise for understanding the neurobiology of depressive disorders. It is axiomatic that depression—whether situational, endogenous, unipolar, neurotic, or melancholic—is accompanied by sleep disturbance. However, the mood-sleep relationship is not a simple bidirectional one. For instance, most healthy subjects report little change in mood (or mild dysphoria) as a consequence of partial or total sleep deprivation, but approximately 60% of depressed patients note transient antidepressant effects after sleep deprivation. These basic observations suggest not only that mood and sleep interact with each other, but that they interact differently in depressed and nondepressed individuals.


Sleep Deprivation Slow Wave Sleep Total Sleep Deprivation Sleep Change NREM Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamson J, Burdick JA: Sleep of dry alcoholics, Arch Gen Psychiat 1973; 28: 146–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Dickson H, King D, Yerevanian B, Van Valkenburg C: Chronic depressions: Part 2. Sleep EEG differentiation of primary dysthymic disorders from anxious depressions, J Affect Disord 1984; 6: 287–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiskal HS, Lemmi H, Yerevanian B, King D, Belluomini J: The utility of the REM latency test in psychiatric diagnosis: A study of 81 depressed outpatients, Psychiat Res 1982; 7: 101–110.Google Scholar
  4. Akiskal HS, Yerevanian BI, Davis GC, King D, Lemmi H: The nosologic status of borderline personality: Clinical and polysomnographic study, Am J Psychiat 1985; 142: 192–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansseau M, Kupfer DJ, Reynolds CF, McEachran AB: REM latency distribution in major depression: Clinical characteristics associated with sleep onset REM periods, Biol Psychiat 1984; 19: 1651–1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Avery DH, Wildschiodtz G, Smallwood G, Martin D, Rafaelsen OJ: REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression, Acta Psychiat Scand 1986; 74: 269–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beersma DGM, Daan S, van den Hoofdakker RH: Distribution of REM latencies and other sleep phenomena in depression as explained by a single ultradian rhythm disturbance, Sleep 1984; 7: 126–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beersma DGM, Daan S, van den Hoofdakker RH: The timing of sleep in depression: Theoretical considerations, Psychiat Res 1985; 16: 253–262.Google Scholar
  9. Berger M, Lund R, Bronisch T, von Zerssen D: REM latency in neurotic and endogenous depression and the cholinergic REM induction test, Psychiat Res 1983; 10: 113–123.Google Scholar
  10. Borbély AA: A two process model of sleep regulation, Human Neurobiol 1982; 1: 195–204.Google Scholar
  11. Borbély AA, Tobler I, Loepfe M, Kupfer DJ, Ulrich RF, Grochocinski V, Doman J, Matthews G: All-night spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in untreated depressives and normal controls, Psychiat Res 1984; 12: 27–33.Google Scholar
  12. Borbély AA, Wirz-Justice A: Sleep, sleep deprivation and depression: A hypothesis derived from a model of sleep regulation, Human Neurobiol 1982; 1: 205–210.Google Scholar
  13. Buysse DJ, Jarrett DB, Miewald JM, Kupfer DJ, Greenhouse JB: Minute-byminute analysis of REM sleep timing in major depression, Biol Psychiat 1990; 28: 911–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ: Diagnostic and research applications of electroencephalographic sleep studies in depression: Conceptual and methodological issues, J Nery Ment Dis 1990; 178: 405–414.Google Scholar
  15. Cartwright RD: Rapid eye movement sleep characteristics during and after mood-disturbing events, Arch Gen Psychiat 1983; 40: 197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coble P, Foster FG, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep diagnosis of primary depression, Arch Gen Psychiat 1976; 33: 1124–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Coble PA, Kupfer DJ, Shaw DH: Distribution of REM latency in depression, Biol Psychiat 1981; 16: 453–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coble PA, Kupfer DJ, Spiker DG, Neil JF, McPartland RJ: EEG sleep in primary depression: A longitudinal placebo study, J Affect Disord 1979; 1: 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dahl RE, Puig-Antich J, Ryan ND, Nelson B, Dachille S, Cunningham SL, Trubnick L, Klepper TP: EEG sleep in adolescents with major depression: The role of suicidality and inpatient status, J Affect Disord 1990; 19: 63–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubé S, Jones DA, Bell J, Davies A, Ross E, Sitaram N: Interface of panic and depression: Clinical and sleep EEG correlates, Psychiat Res 1986; 19: 119–133.Google Scholar
  21. Dubé S, Kumar N, Ettedgui E, Pohl R, Jones D, Sitaram N: Cholinergic REM induction response: Separation of anxiety and depression, Biol Psychiat 1985; 20: 408–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Duncan WC Jr, Gillin JC, Post RM, Gerner RH, Wehr TA: Relationship between EEG sleep patterns and clinical improvement in depressed patients treated with sleep deprivation, Biol Psychiat 1980; 15: 879–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Duncan WC, Pettigrew KD, Gillin JC: REM architecture changes in bipolar and unipolar depression, Am J Psychiat 1979; 136: 1424–1427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ehlers CL, Haystad JW, Garfinkel A, Kupfer DJ: Nonlinear analysis of EEG sleep states, Neu ropsychopharmacology 1991; 5: 167–176.Google Scholar
  25. Ehlers CL, Kupfer DJ: Effects of age on delta and REM sleep parameters, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1989; 72: 118–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Feinberg I: Changes in sleep cycle pattern with age, J Psychiat Res 1974; 10: 283–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Feinberg I, Koresko RL, Heller N: EEG sleep patterns as a function of normal and pathological aging in man, J Psychiat Res 1967; 5: 107–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Feinberg I, March JD, Fein G, Floyd TC, Walker JM, Price L: Period and amplitude analysis of 0.5–3 c/ sec activity in NREM sleep of young adults, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1978; 44: 202–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Feinberg M, Carroll BJ: Biological “markers” for endogenous depression: Effect of age, severity of illness, weight loss, and polarity, Arch Gen Psychiat 1984; 41: 1080–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Feinberg M, Gillin JC, Carroll BJ, Greden JP, Zis AP: EEG studies of sleep in the diagnosis of depression, Biol Psychiat 1982; 17: 305–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganguli R, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep in young, never medicated schizophrenics, Arch Gen Psychiat 1987; 44: 36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gerner RH, Post RM, Gillin JC, Bunney WE Jr: Biological and behavioral effects of one night’s sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals, J Psychiat Res 1979; 15: 21–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Giles DE, Biggs MM, Rush AJ, Roffwarg HP: Risk factors in families of unipolar depression. I. Psychiatric illness and reduced REM latency, J Affect Disord 1988; 14: 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Giles DE, Jarrett RB, Roffwarg HP, Rush AJ: Reduced rapid eye movement latency: A predictor of recurrence in depression, Neuropsychopharmacology 1987a; 1: 33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Giles DE, Kupfer DJ, Roffwarg HP, Rush AJ, Biggs MM, Etzel BA: Polysomnographic parameters in first-degree relatives of unipolar probands, Psychiat Res 1989; 27: 127–136.Google Scholar
  36. Giles DE, Roffwarg HP, Rush AJ, Guzick DS: Age-adjusted threshold values for reduced REM latency in unipolar depression using ROC analysis, Biol Psychiat 1990; 27: 841–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Giles DE, Roffwarg HP, Schiesser MA, Rush AJ: Which endogenous depressive symptoms relate to REM latency reduction?, Biol Psychiat 1986a; 21: 473–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Giles DE, Rush AJ, Roffwarg HP: Sleep parameters in bipolar I, bipolar II, and unipolar depressions, Biol Psychiat 1986b; 21: 1340–1343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Giles DE, Schlesser MA, Rush AJ, Orsulak PJ, Fulton CL, Roffwarg HP: Polysomnographic findings and dexamethasone nonsuppression in unipolar depression: A replication and extension, Biol Psychiat 1987b; 22: 872–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gillin JC: The sleep therapies of depression, Prog Neurophsychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 1983; 7: 351–364.Google Scholar
  41. Gillin JC, Buchsbaum MS, Jacobs LS, Fram DH, Williams RB, Vaughan TB, Mellon E, Snyder F, Wyatt RJ: Partial REM sleep deprivation, schizophrenia and field articulation, Arch Gen Psychiat 1974; 30: 653–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gillin JC, Duncan WC, Murphy DL, Post RM, Wehr TA, Goodwin FK, Wyatt RJ, Bunney WE: Age-related changes in sleep in depressed and normal subjects, Psychiat Res 1981; 4: 73–78.Google Scholar
  43. Gillin JC, Duncan W, Pettigrew KD, Frankel BL, Snyder F: Successful separation of depressed, normal, and insomniac subjects by EEG sleep data, Arch Gen Psychiat 1979; 36: 85–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gillin JC, Kripke DF, Janowsky DS, Risch SC: Effects of brief naps on mood and sleep in sleep-deprived depressed patients, Psychiat Res 1989; 27: 253–265.Google Scholar
  45. Gillin JC, Smith TL, Irwin M, Kripke DF, Brown S, Schuckit M: Short REM latency in primarily alcoholic patients with secondary depression, Am J Psychiat 1990; 147: 106–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goetz RR, Puig-Antich J, Ryan N, Rabinovich H, Ambrosini PJ, Nelson B, Krawiec V: Electroencephalographic sleep of adolescents with major depression and normal controls, Arch Gen Psychiat 1987; 44: 61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Guazzelli M, Maggini C, Landini G, Feinberg I: Similarity of non-REM abnormalities in schizophrenia and depression, Arch Gen Psychiat 1985; 42: 834–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hauri P, Chernik D, Hawkins D, Mendels J: Sleep of depressed patients in remission, Arch Gen Psychiat 1974; 31: 386–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hauri P, Hawkins DR: Phasic REM, depression, and the relationship between sleeping and waking, Arch Gen Psychiat 1971; 25: 56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hiatt JF, Floyd TC, Katz PH, Feinberg I: Further evidence of abnormal nonrapid-eye-movement sleep in schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiat 1985; 42: 797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hudson JI, Lipinski JF, Frankenburg FR, Grochocinski VJ, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep in mania, Arch Gen Psychiat 1988; 45: 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hudson JI, Pope HG, Jonas JM, Stakes JW, Grochocinski V, Lipinski JR, Kupfer DJ: Sleep EEG in bulimia, Biol Psychiat 1987; 22: 820–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Insel TR, Gillin JC, Moore A, Mendelson WB, Lowenstein RJ, Murphy DL: The sleep of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, Arch Gen Psychiat 1982; 39: 1372–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Institute of Medicine Division of Health Sciences Policy, Basic Sleep Research (A Research Briefing) Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990, 1–12.Google Scholar
  55. Janowsky DS, El-Yousef MK, Davis JM, Sekerke HJ: A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression, Lancet 1972; 2: 632–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jus K, Bouchard M, Jus AK, Villeneuve A, Lachance R: Sleep EEG studies in untreated, long-term schizophrenic patients, Arch Gen Psychiat 1973; 29: 386–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kempenaers C, Kerkhofs M, Linkowski P, Mendlewicz J: Sleep EEG variables in young schizophrenic and depressive patients, Biol Psychiat 1988; 24: 833–838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Keshavan MS, Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep in schizophrenia: A critical review, Comprehensive Psychiat 1990; 30: 34–47.Google Scholar
  59. Knowles JB, Cairns J, MacLean AW, Delva N, Prowse A, Waldron J, Letemendia FJ: The sleep of remitted bipolar depressives: Comparison with sex and age-matched controls, Can J Psychiat 1986; 31: 295–298.Google Scholar
  60. Knowles JB, MacLean AW: Age-related changes in sleep in depressed and healthy subjects: a meta-analysis, Neuropsychopharmacology 1990; 3: 251–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Knowles JB, MacLean AW, Cairns J: Definitions of REM latency: Some comparisons with particular reference to depression, Biol Psychiat 1982; 17: 993–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kumar A, Shipley JE, Eiser AS, Feinberg M, Flegel P, Grunhaus L, Haskett RF: Clinical correlates of sleep onset REM periods in depression, Biol Psychiat 1987; 22: 1473–1477.Google Scholar
  63. Kupfer DJ: REM latency: A psychobiologic marker for primary depressive disease, Biol Psychiat 1976; 11: 159–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kupfer DJ, Broudy D, Coble, PA, Spiker DG: EEG sleep and affective psychosis, J Affect Disord 1980; 2: 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kupfer DJ, Ehlers CL: Two roads to rapid eye movement latency, Arch Gen Psychiat 1989; 46: 945–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kupfer DJ, Foster G, Coble PA, McPartland RJ, Ulrich RF: The application of EEG sleep for the differential diagnosis of affective disorders, Am J Psychiat 1978; 135: 69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kupfer DJ, Frank E: The relationship of EEG sleep to vital depression, J Affect Disord 1984; 7: 249–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Ehlers CL: EEG sleep in young depressives: First and second night effects, Biol Psychiat 1989a; 25: 87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Grochocinski VJ, Gregor M, McEachran AB: Electroencephalographic sleep profiles in recurrent depression: A longitudinal investigation, Arch Gen Psychiat 1988; 45: 678–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kupfer DJ, Frank E, McEachran AB, Grochocinski VJ: Delta sleep ratio: A biological correlate of early recurrence in unipolar affective disorder, Arch Gen Psychiat 1990; 47: 1100–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kupfer DJ, Gillin JC, Coble PA, Spiker DG, Shaw D, Holzer B: REM sleep, naps, and depression, Psychiat Res 1981; 5: 195–203.Google Scholar
  72. Kupfer DJ, Reynolds CF, Ehlers CL: Comparison of EEG sleep measures among depressive subtypes and controls in older individuals, Psychiat Res 1989b; 27: 13–21.Google Scholar
  73. Kupfer DJ, Reynolds CF, Grochocinski VJ, Ulrich RF, McEachran A: Aspects of short REM latency in affective states: A revisit, Psychiat Res 1986a; 17: 49–59.Google Scholar
  74. Kupfer DJ, Reynolds CF, Ulrich RF, Grochocinski VJ: Comparison of automated REM and slow-wave sleep analysis in young and middle-aged depressed subjects, Biol Psychiat 1986b; 21: 189–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kupfer DJ, Targ E, Stack J: Electroencephalographic sleep in unipolar depressive subtypes: Support for a biological and familial classification, J Nery Ment Dis 1982; 170: 494–498.Google Scholar
  76. Kupfer DJ, Ulrich RF, Coble PA, Jarrett DB, Grochocinski V, Doman J, Matthews G, Borbély AA: Application of automated REM and slow wave sleep analysis: I. Normal and depressed subjects, Psychiat Res 1984a; 13: 325–334.Google Scholar
  77. Kupfer DJ, Ulrich RF, Coble PA, Jarrett DB, Grochocinski V, Doman J, Matthews G, Borbély, AA: Application of automated REM and slow wave sleep analysis: II. testing the assumptions of the two-process model of sleep regulation in normal and depressed subjects, Psychiat Res 1984b; 13: 335–343.Google Scholar
  78. Kupfer DJ, Wyatt RJ, Scott J, Snyder F: Sleep disturbance in acute schizophrenic patients, Am J Psychiat 1970; 126: 1213–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lauer C, Zulley J, Krieg J-C, Riemann D, Berger M: EEG sleep and the cholinergic REM induction test in anorexic and bulimic patients, Psychiat Res 1988; 26: 171–181.Google Scholar
  80. Levy AB, Dixon KN, Schmidt H: Sleep architecture in anorexia nervosa and bulimia, Biol Psychiat 1988; 23: 99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lewy AJ, Sack RL, Singer CM, White DM, Hoban TM: Winter depression and the phase-shift hypothesis for bright light’s therapeutic effects: History, theory, and experimental evidence, J Biol Rhythms 1988; 3: 121–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Linkowski P, Kerkhofs M, Hauspie R, Susanne C, Mendlewicz J: EEG sleep patterns in man: A twin study, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1989; 73: 279–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lund R, Kammerloher A, Dirlich G: Body temperature in endogenously depressed patients during depression and remission. In: Wehr TA, Goodwin FK (Eds.), Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatry, Pacific Grove, CA: The Boxwood Press, 1983, 77–88.Google Scholar
  84. MacLean AW, Cairns J, Knowles JB: REM latency and depression: Computer simulations based on the results of phase delay of sleep in normal subjects, Psychiat Res 1983; 9: 69–79.Google Scholar
  85. MacLean AW, Knowles JB, Vetere C: REM sleep and depression: Further use of computer simulation to test the phase-advance hypothesis, Psychiat Res 1986; 19: 25–36.Google Scholar
  86. McCarley RW: REM sleep and depression: Common neurobiological control mechanisms, Am J Psychiat 1982; 139: 565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. McCarley RW, Massaquoi SG: A limit cycle mathematical model of the REM sleep oscillator system, Am J Physiol 1986; 251: R1011 - R1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McNamara E, Reynolds CF, Soloff PH, Mathias R, Rossi A, Spiker D, Coble PA, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep evaluation of depression in borderline patients, Am J Psychiat 1984; 141: 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mellman TA, Uhde TW: Electroencephalographic sleep in panic disorder: A focus on sleep-related panic attacks, Arch Gen Psychiat 1989; 46: 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mendlewicz J, Kerkhofs M, Hoffmann G, Linkowski P: Dexamethasone suppression test and REM sleep in patients with major depressive disorder, Br J Psychiat 1984; 145: 383–388.Google Scholar
  91. Montgomery I, Oswald I, Morgan K, Adam K: Trazodone enhances sleep in subjective quality but not in objective duration, Br J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 16: 139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mullen PE, Linsell CR, Parker D: Influence of sleep disruption and calorie restriction on biological markers for depression, Lancet 1986; 2: 1051–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Naylor MW, Shain BN, Shipley JE: REM latency in psychotically depressed adolescents, Biol Psychiat 1990; 28: 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Neil J, Merikangas JR, Foster RF, Spiker DG, Kupfer DJ: Waking and all-night sleep EEGs in anorexia nervosa, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1980; 1: 9–15.Google Scholar
  95. Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA: Studies on the modulation of the sleep-wakefulness continuum in man by fluoxetine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, Neuropharmacology 1988; 27: 597–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nofzinger EA, Thase ME, Reynolds CF, Himmelhoch JM, Mallinger A, Houck P, Kupfer DJ: Hypersomnia in bipolar depression: Part 1: A comparison with narcolepsy using the multiple sleep latency test, Am J Psychiat 1991; 148: 1177–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Nurnberger J Jr, Sitaram N, Gershon ES, Gillin JC: A twin study of cholinergic REM induction, Biol Psychiat 1983; 18: 1161–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Papadimitriou GN, Linkowski P, Kerkhofs M, Kempenaers C, Mendlewicz J: Sleep EEG recordings in generalized anxiety disorder with significant depression, J Affect Disord 1988; 15: 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Prinz PN, Peskind ER, Vitaliano PP, Raskind MA, Eisdorfer C, Zembeuznikov W, Gerber CJ: Changes in the sleep and waking EEGs of nondemented and demented elderly subjects, J Am Ger Soc 1982; 30: 86–93.Google Scholar
  100. Quitkin FM, Rabkin JG, Stewart JW, McGrath PJ, Harrison W, Davies M, Goetz R, Puig-Antich J: Sleep of atypical depressives, J Affect Disord 1985; 8: 61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Reinink E, Bouhuys N, Wirz-Justice A, van den Hoofdakker R: Prediction of the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation by diurnal variation of mood, Psychiat Res 1990; 32: 113–124.Google Scholar
  102. Reynolds CF, Buysse DJ, Kupfer DJ, Hoch CC, Houck PR, Mattzie J, George CJ: Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation as a probe in elderly subjects, Arch Gen Psychiat 1990a; 47: 1128–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ: State-of-the-art review—sleep research in affective illness: state of the art circa 1987, Sleep 1987; 10: 199–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Houck PR, Hoch CC, Stack JA, Berman SR, Zimmer B: Reliable discrimination of elderly depressed and demented patients by electroencephalographic sleep data, Arch Gen Psychiat 1988; 45: 258–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Taska LS, Hoch CC, Spiker DG, Sewitch DE, Zimmer B, Marin RS, Nelson JP, Martin D, Morycz R: EEG sleep in elderly depressed, demented, and healthy subjects, Biol Psychiat 1985a; 20: 431–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Reynolds CF, Kupfer DJ, Thase ME, Frank E, Jarrett DB, Coble PA, Hoch CC, Buysse DJ, Simons AD, Houck PR: Sleep, gender, and depression: An analysis of gender effects on the electroencephalographic sleep of 302 depressed outpatients, Biol Psychiat 1990b; 28: 673–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Reynolds CF, Newton TF, Shaw DH, Coble PA, Kupfer DJ: Electroencephalographic sleep findings in depressed outpatients, Psychiat Res 1982; 6: 65–75.Google Scholar
  108. Reynolds CF, Shaw DF, Newton TF, Coble PA, Kupfer DJ: EEG sleep in outpatients with generalized anxiety: A preliminary comparison with depressed outpatients, Psychiat Res 1983a; 8: 81–89.Google Scholar
  109. Reynolds CF, Soloff PH, Kupfer DJ, Taska LS, Restifo K, Coble PA, McNamara ME: Depression in borderline patients: A prospective EEG sleep study, Psychiat Res 1985b; 14: 1–15.Google Scholar
  110. Reynolds CF, Taska LS, Jarrett DB, Coble PA, Kupfer DJ: REM latency in depression: Is there one best definition?, Biol Psychiat 1983b; 18: 849–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Riemann D, Berger M: EEG sleep in depression and in remission and the REM sleep response to the cholinergic agonist RS 86, Neuropsychopharmacology 1989; 2: 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Riemann D, Berger M: The effects of total sleep deprivation and subsequent treatment with clomipramine on depressive symptoms and sleep electroencephalography in patients with a major depressive disorder, Acta Psychiat Scand 1990; 81: 24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Riemann D, Gann H, Hohagen F, Olbrich R, Fleckenstein P, Berger M: REM sleep in depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. The influence of cholinergic stimulation with RS 86. In: Horne JA (Ed.), Sleep ‘80, Proceedings of the 10th European Congress on Sleep Research, Strasbourg, May 1990, Bochum: Pontenagel Press, 1990, 235–237.Google Scholar
  114. Riemann D, Wiegand M, Zulley J, Lauer Ch, Schreiber W, Berger M: The effect of the occurrence of REM sleep during morning naps on mood after sleep deprivation in patients with major depressive disorder. In: Horne J (Ed.), Sleep ‘88, New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1989, 230–232.Google Scholar
  115. Roth T, Zorick F, Wittig R, McLenaghan A, Roehrs T: The effects of doxepin HC1 on sleep and depression, J Clin Psychiat 1982; 43: 366–368.Google Scholar
  116. Rush AJ, Erman MK, Giles DE, Schlesser MA, Carpenter G, Vasavada N, Roffwarg HP: Polysomnographic findings in recently drug-free and clinically remitted depressed patients, Arch Gen Psychiat 1986; 43: 878–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rush AJ, Giles DE, Roffwarg HP, Parker CR: Sleep EEG dexamethasone suppression test findings in outpatients with unipolar major depressive disorders, Biol Psychiat 1982; 17: 327–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sack DA, Duncan W, Rosenthal NE, Mendelson WE, Wehr TA: The timing and duration of sleep in partial sleep deprivation therapy of depression, Acta Psychiat Scand 1988; 77: 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sack DA, Nurnberger J, Rosenthal NE, Ashburn E, Wehr TA: Potentiation of antidepressant medications by phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle, Am J Psychiat 1985; 142: 606–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schulz H, Lund R: On the origin of early REM episodes in the sleep of depressed patients: A comparison of three hypotheses, Psychiat Res 1985; 16: 65–77.Google Scholar
  121. Schulz H, Lund R, Cording C, Dirlich G: Bimodal distribution of REM sleep latencies in depression, Biol Psychiat 1979; 14: 595–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schulz H, Tetzlaff W: Distribution of REM latencies after sleep interruption in depressive patients and control subjects, Biol Psychiat 1982; 17: 1367–1376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Shipley JE, Kupfer DJ, Dealy RS, Griffin SJ, Coble PA, McEachran AB, Grochocinski VJ: Differential effects of amitriptyline and of zimelidine on the sleep electroencephalogram of depressed patients, Clin Pharmacol Therapeut 1984; 36: 251–259.Google Scholar
  124. Shipley JE, Kupfer DJ, Griffin SJ, Dealy RS, Coble PA, McEachran AB, Grochocinski VJ, Ulrich R, Perel JM: Comparison of effects of desipramine and amitriptyline on EEG sleep of depressed patients, Psychopharmacology 1985; 85: 14–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sitaram N, Moore AM, Gillin JC: Scopolamine-induced muscarinic supersensitivity in normal man: Changes in sleep, Psychiat Res 1979; 1: 9–16.Google Scholar
  126. Sitaram N, Nurnberger JI, Gershon ES, Gillin JC: Cholinergic regulation of mood and REM sleep: Potential model and marker of vulnerability to affective disorders, Am J Psychiat 1982; 139: 571–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Snyder S, Karacan I: Sleep patterns of sober chronic alcoholics, Neuropsychobiology 1985; 13: 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Somoza E, Mossman D: Optimizing REM latency as a diagnostic test for depression using receiver operating characteristic analysis and information theory, Biol Psychiat 1990; 27: 990–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Spiker DG, Coble P, Cofsky J, Foster FG, Kupfer DJ: EEG sleep and severity of depression, Biol Psychiat 1978; 13: 485–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Thase ME, Himmelhoch JM, Mallinger AG, Jarrett DB, Kupfer DJ: Sleep EEG and DST findings in anergic bipolar depression, Am J Psychiat 1989; 146: 329–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Thase ME, Kupfer DJ, Spiker DG: Electroencephalographic sleep in secondary depression: A revisit, Biol Psychiat 1984; 19: 805–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Thase ME, Kupfer DJ, Ulrich RF: Electroencephalographic sleep in psychotic depression: A valid subtype?, Arch Gen Psychiat 1986; 43: 886–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ulrich RF, Shaw DH, Kupfer DJ: Effects of aging on EEG sleep in depression, Sleep 1980; 3: 31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DGM: On the explanation of short REM latencies in depression, Psychiat Res 1985; 16: 155–163.Google Scholar
  135. Van den Hoofdakker RH, Beersma DGM: On the contribution of sleep wake physiology to the explanation and treatment of depression, Acta Psychiat Scand (Suppl.) 1988; 341: 53–71.Google Scholar
  136. Vogel GW, Buffenstein A, Minter K, Hennessey A: Drug effects on REM sleep and on endogenous depression, Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1990; 14: 49–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Vogel GW, McAbee R, Barker K, Thurmond A: Endogenous depression improvement and REM pressure, Arch Gen Psychiat 1977; 34: 96–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Vogel GW, Thurmond A, Gibbons P, Sloan K, Boyd M, Walker M: REM sleep reduction effects on depression syndromes, Arch Gen Psychiat 1975; 32: 765777.Google Scholar
  139. Vogel GW, Vogel F, McAbee RS, Thurmond AJ: Improvement of depression by REM sleep deprivation, Arch Gen Psychiat 1980; 37: 247–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. von Zerssen D, Barthelmes H, Dirlich G, Doerr P, Emrich HM, von Lindern L, Lund R, Pirke KM: Circadian rhythms in endogenous depression, Psychiat Res 1985; 16: 51–63.Google Scholar
  141. Walsh BT, Goetz R, Roose SP, Fingeroth S, Glassman AH: EEG-monitored sleep in anorexia nervosa and bulimia, Biol Psychiat 1985; 20: 947–956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Webb WB, Campbell SC: Relationships in sleep characteristics of identical and fraternal twins, Arch Gen Psychiat 1983; 40: 1093–1095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Wehr TA: Effects of wakefulness and sleep on depression and mania. In Montplaisir J, Godbout R (Eds.), Sleep and Biological Rhythms: Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Psychiatry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990, 42–86.Google Scholar
  144. Wehr TA, Goodwin FK: Biological rhythms in manic-depressive illness. In: Wehr TA, Goodwin FK (Eds.), Circadian Rhythms in Psychiatry, Pacific Grove, CA: The Boxwood Press, 1983, 129–184.Google Scholar
  145. Wehr TA, Wirz-Justice A: Circadian rhythm mechanism in affective illness and in antidepressant drug action, Pharmacopsychiatry 1982; 15: 31–39.Google Scholar
  146. Wiegand M, Berger M, Jurgen Z, Lauer C, von Zerssen D, The influence of daytime naps on the therapeutic effect of sleep deprivation, Biol Psychiat 1987; 22: 389–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Williams RL, Karacan I, Hursch CJ: Changes in sleep variables across age groups. In: Electroencephalography (EEG) of Human Sleep: Clinical Applications, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974, 69–95.Google Scholar
  148. Wu JC, Bunney WE: The biological basis of an antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and relapse: Review and hypothesis, Am J Psychiat 1990; 147: 14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Zarcone V, Azumi K, Dement W, Gulevich G, Kraemer H, Pivik T: REM phase. deprivation and schizophrenia II, Arch Gen Psychiat 1975; 32: 1431–1436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zarcone VP, Benson KL, Berger PA: Abnormal rapid eye movement latencies in schizophrenia, Arch Gen Psychiat 1987; 44: 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Buysse
    • 1
  • David J. Kupfer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations