Gaba and Depression

  • Frederick Petty
  • Gerald L. Kramer
  • William Hendrickse
Part of the The Depressive Illness Series book series (DISS, volume 3)


From a historical perspective, the amino acid neurotransmitters are recent candidates for consideration in theories of psychiatric illness. The biogenic amines, particularly norepinephrine and serotonin, have traditionally played a major role in theories regarding the biochemical basis of depression and of its treatment. This is readily explained by a general focus in neuroscience on biogenic amine neurochemistry and neuropharmacology during the formative decades of biological psychiatry. Also, it reflects the early observation that depletion of the biogenic amines with agents such as reserpine was often accompanied by the development of depressive symptoms. Similarly, the first-generation antidepressants were early reported to enhance biogenic amine activity through inhibition of monoamine oxidase or blockade of synaptic reuptake. Thus the catecholamine theory of depression was first published about 25 years ago.


Mood Disorder GABAA Receptor GABAB Receptor Sodium Valproate Gaba Level 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahluwalia P, Grewaal DS, Singhal RL: Changes in y-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid and glutamic acid decarboxylase in discrete regions of rat brain following lithium administration and withdrawal. Drug Dev Res 1983; 3: 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akasu T: 5-hydroxytryptamine facilitates GABA-induced depolarization in bullfrog primary afferent neurons. Neurosci Lett 1988; 92: 270–274.Google Scholar
  3. Apud JA, Racagni G, Iuliano E, Cocchi D, Casanueva F, Muller EE: Role of central nervous system-derived or circulating y-aminobutyric acid on prolactin secretion in the rat. Endocrinol 1981; 108: 1505–1510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbaccia ML, Ravizza L, Costa E: Maprotiline: An antidepressant with an unusual pharmacological profile. J Pharm Exper Ther 1986; 236: 307–312.Google Scholar
  5. Bartholini G: Experimental basis for the antidepressant action of the GABA receptor agonist progabide. Neurosci Lett 1984a; 47: 351–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartholini G: Pharmacology of the GABAergic system: Effects of progabide, a GABA receptor agonist. Psychoneuroendocrinol 1984b; 9: 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartholini G, Lloyd KG, Scatton B, Zivkovic B, Morselli PL: The GABA hypothesis of depression and antidepressant drug action. Psychopharmacol Bull 1985; 21: 385–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berrettini WH, Umberkoman-Wiita B, Nurnberg JI, Jr, Vogel WH, Gershon ES, Post RM: Platelet GABA-transaminase in affective illness. Psychiat Res 1980; 7: 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berrettini WH, Nurnberger JI, Jr, Hare T, Gershon ES, Post RM: Plasma and CSF GABA in affective illness. Brit J Psychiat 1982; 141: 483–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berrettini WH, Nurnberger JI, Jr, Hare TA, Simmons-Ailing S, Gershon ES, Post RM: Reduced plasma and CSF y-aminobutyric acid in affective illness: Effect of lithium carbonate. Bio Psychiat 1983; 18: 184–195.Google Scholar
  11. Berrettini WH, Goldin LR, Nurnberger JI, Jr, Gershon ES: Genetic factors in affective illness. J Psychiat Res 1984; 18: 329–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berrettini WH, Nurnberger JI, Jr, Hare TA, Simmons-Ailing S, Gershon ES: CSF GABA in euthymic manic-depressive patients and controls. Biol Psychiat 1986; 21: 844–846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohlen P, Huot S, Palfreyman MG: The relationship between GABA concentrations in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Res 1979; 167: 297–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonanno G, Raiteri M: A carrier for GABA uptake exists on noradrenaline nerve endings in selective rat brain areas but not on serotonin terminals. J Neural Transm 1987a; 69: 59–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonanno G, Raiteri M: Release-regulating GABAA receptors are present on noradrenergic nerve terminals in selective areas of the rat brain. Synapse 1987b; 1: 254–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borsini F, Evangelista S, Meli A: Effect of GABAergic drugs in the behavioral despair test in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1986; 121: 265–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borsini F, Mancinelli A, D’Aranno V, Evangelista S, Meli A: On the role of endogenous GABA in the forced swimming test in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987; 29: 275–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosler O: Ultrastructural relationships of serotonin and GABA terminals in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Evidence for a close interconnection between the two afferent systems. J Neurocytol 1989; 18: 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowdler JM, Green AR, Minchin MCW, Nutt DJ: Regional GABA concentration and [3H]-diazepam binding in rat brain following repeated electroconvulsive shock. J Neural Transm 1983; 56: 3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowers MB, Jr, Gold BI, Roth RH: CSF GABA in psychotic disorders. Psychopharmacol 1980; 70: 279–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caron PC, Code LJ, Kremzner LT: Putrescine, a source of y-aminobutyric acid in the adrenal gland of the rat. Biochem J 1988; 251: 559–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheetham SC, Crompton MR, Katona CLE, Parker SJ, Horton RW: Brain GABAA/benzodiazepine binding sites and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity in depressed suicide victims. Brain Res 1988; 460: 114–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cross JA, Horton RW: Are increases in GAI3AB receptors consistent findings following chronic antidepressant administration? Eur J Pharmacol 1987; 141: 159–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dennis T, Curet O, Nishikawa T, Scatton B: Further evidence for, and nature of, the facilitatory GABAergic influence on central noradrenergic transmission. NS Arch Pharmacol 1985; 331: 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drugan RC, Ryan SM, Minor TR, Maier SF: Librium prevents the analgesia and shuttlebox escape deficit typically observed following inescapable shock. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1984; 21: 749–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Drugan RC, Maier SF, Skolnick P, Paul SM, Crawley JN: An anxiogenic benzodiazepine receptor ligand induces learned helplessness. Eur J Pharmacol 1985; 113: 453–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drugan RC, Morrow AL, Weizman R, Weizman A, Deutsch SI, Crawley JN, Paul SM: Stress-induced behavioral depression in the rat is associated with a decrease in GABA receptor-mediated chloride ion flux and brain benzodiazepine receptor occupancy. Brain Res 1989; 487: 45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emrich HM, Zerssen DV, Kissling W, Moller HJ, Windorfer A: Effect of sodium valproate on mania. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1980; 229: 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Emrich HM, Dose M, Von Zerssen D: The use of sodium valproate, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in patients with affective disorders. J Affect Disord 1985; 8: 243–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Enna SJ, Ziegler MG, Lake CR, Wood JH, Brooks BR, Butler IJ: Cerebrospinal fluid y-aminobutyric acid. In: Wood JH (Ed.), Neurobiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid, New York: Plenum Press, 1980; 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erdo SL, Kiss B: Presence of GABA, glutamate decarboxylase, and GABA transaminase in peripheral tissues: A collection of quantitative data. In: Erdo SL, Bowery NG (Eds.), GABAergic Mechanisms in the Mammalian Periphery, New York: Raven Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  32. Ferkany JW, Butler IJ, Enna SJ: Effect of drugs on rat brain, cerebrospinal fluid and blood GABA content. J Neurochem 1978a; 33: 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferkany JW, Smith LA, Seifert WE, Jr, Caprioli RM, Enna SJ: Measurement of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in blood. Life Sci 1978b; 22: 2101–2128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferraro TN, Hare TA: Free and conjugated amino acids in human CSF influence of age and sex. Brain Res 1985; 338: 53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ferraro TN, Golden GT, Hare TA: Repeated electroconvulsive shock selectively alters y-aminobutyric acid levels in the rat brain: Effect of electrode placement. Convulsive Ther 1990; 6 (3): 199–208.Google Scholar
  36. Francois-Bellan AM, Hery M, Faldon M, Hery F: Evidence for GABA control of serotonin metabolism in the rat suprachiasmatic area. Neurochem Int 1988; 134 (4): 455–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gerner RH, Hare TA: CSF GABA in normal subjects and patients with depression, schizophrenia, mania, and anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiat 1981; 138: 1098–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gerner RH, Fairbanks L, Anderson GM, Young JG, Scheinin M, Linnoila M, Hare TA, Shaywitz BA, Cohen DJ: CSF neurochemistry in depressed, manic, and schizophrenic patients compared with that of normal controls. Am J Psychiat 1984; 141: 1533–1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gold BI, Bowers MB, Jr, Roth RH, Sweeney DW: GABA levels in CSF of patients with psychiatric disorders. Am J Psychiat 1980; 137: 362–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gottesfeld Z: Effect of lithium and other alkali metals on brain chemistry and behavior. Psychopharmacologia 1976; 45: 239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gray JA, Green AR: GABAB-receptor mediated inhibition of potassium-evoked release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine from mouse frontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol 1987; 91: 517–522.Google Scholar
  42. Green AR, Vincent ND: The effect of repeated electroconvulsive shock on GABA synthesis and release in regions of rat brain. Br J Pharmacol 1987a; 92: 19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Green AR, Minchin CW, Vincent ND: Inhibition of GABA release from slices prepared from several brain regions of rats at various times following a convulsion. Br J Pharmacol 198Th; 92: 13–18.Google Scholar
  44. Grove J, Schecter PJ, Hanke NFJ, de Smet Y, Agid Y, Tell G, Koch-Weser J: Concentration gradients of free and total y-aminobutyric acid and homocarnosine in human CSF: Comparison of suboccipital and lumbar sampling. J Neu rochem 1982; 39: 1618–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hare TA, Manyam NVB: Rapid and sensitive ion-exchange fluorometric measurement of y-aminobutyric acid in physiological fluids. Anal Biochem 1980; 101: 349–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Honig A, Bartlett JR, Bouras N, Bridges PK: Amino acid levels in depression: a preliminary investigation. J Psychiatr Res 1989; 22 (3): 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joly D, Lloyd KG, Pichat P, Sanger DJ: Correlation between the behavioral effect of desipramine and GABAB receptor regulation in the olfactory bulbectomized rat. Br J Pharmacol 1987: 125.Google Scholar
  48. Kaiya H, Namba M, Yoshida H, Nakamura S: Plasma glutamate decarboxylase activity in neuropsychiatry. Psychiat Res 1982; 6: 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Karbon EW, Duman RS, Enna SJ: GABAB receptors and norepinephrine-stimulated CAMP production in rat brain cortex. Brain Res 1984; 306: 327–332.Google Scholar
  50. Kasa K, Otsuki S, Yamamoto M, Sato M, Kuroda H, Ogawa N: Cerebrospinal fluid y-aminobutyric acid and homovanillic acid in depressive disorders. Biol Psychiatry 1982; 17: 877–883.Google Scholar
  51. Korf J, Venema K: Desmethylimipramine enhances the release of endogenous GABA and other neurotransmitter amino acids from the rat thalamus. J Neurochem 1983; 40: 946–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Korpi ER, Kleinman JE, Wyatt RJ: GABA concentrations in forebrain areas of suicide victims. Bio! Psychiat 1988; 23: 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leonard BE, Tuite M: Anatomical, physicological, and behavioral aspects of olfactory bulbectomy in the rat. Int Rev Neurobiol 1981; 22: 251–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lewis WC, Calden G, Thurston JR, Gilson WE: Psychiatric and neurological reactions to cycloserine in the treatment of tuberculosis. Dis Chest 1957; 32: 172–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lipinski JF, Jr, Cohen BM, Zubenko GS, Waternaux CM: Minireview: Adrenoreceptors and the pharmacology of affective illness: A unifying theory. Life Sci 1988; 40: 1947–1963.Google Scholar
  56. Lloyd KG, Pichat P: Decrease in GABAB binding in the frontal cortex of olfactory bulbectomized rats. Br J Pharmacol 1985; 87: 36 P.Google Scholar
  57. Lloyd KG, Morselli PL: Psychopharmacology of GABAergic drugs. In: Meltzer HY (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress, New York: Raven Press, 1987, 183–195.Google Scholar
  58. Lloyd KG, Morselli PL, Depoortere H, Fournier V, Zivkovic B, Scatton B, Broekkamp C, Worms P, Bartholini G: The potential use of GABA agonists in psychiatric disorders: Evidence from studies with progabide in animal models and clinical trials. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1983; 18: 957–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lloyd KG, Thuret F, Pilc A: Upregulation of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B binding sites in rat frontal cortex: A common action of repeated administration of different classes of antidepressants and electroshock. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1985; 235: 191–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lloyd KG, Morselli PL, Bartholini G: GABA and affective disorders. Med Biol 1987; 65: 159–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lloyd KG, Zivkovic B, Scatton B, Morselli PL, Bartholini G: The GABAergic hypothesis of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiat 1989; 13: 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Loscher W: GABA in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of different species. Effects of y-acetylenic GABA, y-vinyl GABA and sodium valproate. J Neurochem 1979; 32: 1587–1591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Loscher W: Relationship between GABA concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and seizure excitability. J Neurochem 1982; 38: 293–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Loscher W, Schmidt D: Monitoring of y-aminobutyric acid in human cerebrospinal fluid: Downward revision of previous control values. Ther Drug Monit 1984; 6: 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Loscher W, Schmidt D: Diazepam increases y-aminobutyric acid in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem, 49: 152–157.Google Scholar
  66. Loscher W, Rating D, Siemes H: GABA in cerebrospinal fluid of children with febrile convulsions. Epilepsia 1981; 22: 697–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moss HB, Yao JK, Burns M, Maddock J, Tarter RE: Plasma GABA-like activity in response to ethanol challenge in men at high risk for alcoholism. Biol Psychiatry 1990; 27: 617–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Motohashi N, Ikawa K, Kariya T: GABAB receptors are up-regulated by chronic treatment with lithium or carbamazepine. GABA hypothesis of affective disorders? Eur J Pharmacol 1989; 166: 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Musch B, Garreau M: An overview of the antidepressant activity of fengabine (SL 79.229–00) in open clinical studies. In: Shagass C, Jasiassen RC, Bridger WH, Wiss KJ, Stoff D, Simpson GM (Eds.), Biological Psychiatry, New York: Elsevier, 1986; 920–922.Google Scholar
  70. Overmier JB, Hellhammer DH: The learned helplessness model of human depression. In: Simon P, Soubrie P, Widlocher D (Eds.), An Inquiry into Schizophrenia and Depression, New York: Karger, 1988, 177–202.Google Scholar
  71. Perlow MJ, Enna ST, O’Brien PJ, Hoffman HJ, Wyatt RJ: Cerebrospinal fluid y-aminobutyric acid: Daily pattern and response to haloperidol. J Neurochem 1979; 32: 265–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Perry EK, Gibson PH, Blessed G, Perry RH, Tomlinson BE: Neurotransmitter abnormalities in senile dementia. J Neurol Sci 1977; 34: 247–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Petty F, & Trivedi M: Benzodiazepines in the treatment of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 1992 (submitted).Google Scholar
  74. Petty F, Coffman JA: Plasma GABA: A possible indicator of altered GABA function in psychiatric illness. Neuropharmacol 1984; 23: 859–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Petty F, Kramer GL: Plasma GABA and mood disorders. Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, October 29—November 3, 1989. Petty F, Schiesser MA: Plasma GABA in affective illness. J Affect Disord 1981; 3: 339–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Petty F, Sherman AD: Plasma GABA: A blood test for bipolar affective disorder trait? Psychol Psychiat Behav 1982; 7: 431–439.Google Scholar
  77. Petty F, Sherman AD: Plasma GABA levels in psychiatric illness. J Affect Disord 1984; 6: 131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Petty F, Sherman AD, Saquitne J: GABAergic modulation of learned helplessness. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1981; 15: 567–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Petty F, McChesney C, Kramer G: Intracortical glutamate injection produces helpless-like behavior in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985; 22: 531–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Petty F, Kramer G, Feldman M: Is plasma GABA of peripheral origin? Biol Psychiat 1987; 22: 725–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Petty F, Kramer GL, Dunnam D, Rush AJ: Plasma GABA and mood disorders. American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Annual Meeting, Maui, Hawaii, December 10–15, 1989a.Google Scholar
  82. Petty F, Kramer GL, Dunnam D, Backman K, Rush AJ: Plasma GABA and mood disorders. New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit Program Annual Meeting, Key Biscayne, Florida, May 30—June 2, 1986.Google Scholar
  83. Petty F, Kramer GL, Dunnam D, Rush AJ: Plasma GABA: Stable trait marker for mood disorders? Society for Biological Psychiatry Annual Meeting, New York, New York, May 9–13, 1990a.Google Scholar
  84. Petty F, Kramer GL, Dunnam D, Rush AJ: Plasma GABA in mood disorders. Psychopharmacol Bull 1990b; 26 (2): 157–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Plaznik A, Tamorska E, Hauptmann M, Bidzinski A, Kostowski W: Brain neurotransmitter systems mediating behavioral deficits produced by inescapable shock treatment in rats. Brain Res 1988; 447: 122–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Poncelet M, Martin P, Danti S, Simon P, Soubrie P: Noradrenergic rather than GABAergic processes as the common mediation of the antidepressant profile of GABA agonists and imipramine-like drugs in animals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987; 28: 321–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Porsolt RD, Anton G, Blavet N, Jalfre M: Behavioural despair in rats: A new model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Eur J Pharmacol 1978; 47: 379–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Post RM, Ballenger JC, Hare TA, Goodwin FK, Lake CR, Jimerson DC, Bunney WE, Jr: Cerebrospinal fluid GABA in normals and patients with affective disorders. Brain Res Bull 1980; 5: 755–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roy A, DeJong J, Ferraro T, Adinoff B, Gold P, Rubinow LD, Linnoila M: CSF GABA and neuropeptides in pathological gamblers and normal controls. Psychiat Res 1989; 30: 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rubio MC, Losada MEO: GABAergic responses to lithium chloride: Dependence on dose, treatment length and experimental condition. In: Racagni G, Donoso AO (Eds.), GABA and Endocrine Function, New York: Raven Press, 1986, 69–77.Google Scholar
  91. Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Roffwarg HP: Research strategies to identify trait-like biological abnormalities in major depression. Presented at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 10–14, 1990.Google Scholar
  92. Sackeim HA, Decina P, Prohovnik I, Malitz S, Resor SR: Anticonvulsant and antidepressant properties of electroconvulsive therapy: A proposed mechanism of action. Bio Psychiat 1983; 18: 1301–1310.Google Scholar
  93. Scatton B, Lloyd KG, Zivkovic B, Dennis T, Claustre Y, Dedek J, Arbilla S, Langer SZ, Bartholini G: Fengabine, a novel antidepressant GABAergic agent. II. Effect on cerebral noradrenergic, serotonergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987; 241: 251–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schlicker E, Classenm K, Gothert M: GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of serotonin release in the rat brain. NS Arch Pharmacol 326: 99–105.Google Scholar
  95. Schmidt D, Loscher W: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid y-aminobutyric acid in neurological disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1982; 45: 931–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Seligman, MEP, Maier SF: Failure to escape traumatic shock. J Exp Psychol 1967; 74: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sherman AD, Petty F: Neurochemical basis of the action of antidepressants on learned helplessness. Behav Neural Biol 1980; 30: 119–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sherman AD, Petty F: Additivity of neurochemical changes produced by learned helplessness and imipramine. Behav Neural Biol. 1982; 35: 344–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sherman AD, Allers GL, Petty F, Henn FA: A neuropharmacologically relevant animal model of depression. Neuropharmacology 1979; 891–893.Google Scholar
  100. Sherman AD, Sacquitine JL, Petty F: Specificity of the learned helplessness model of depression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16: 449–454.Google Scholar
  101. Squires RF, Saederup E: Antidepressants and metabolites that block GABAA receptors coupled to 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in rat brain. Brain Res 1988; 441: 15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Strahlendorf JC, Lee M, Netzeband JG, Strahlendorf HK: Pentobarbital augments serotonin-mediated inhibition of cerebellar purkinje cells. Neuroscience 1988; 107–115.Google Scholar
  103. Suranyi-Cadotte BE, Dam TV, Quirion R: Antidepressant-anxiolytic interaction: Decreased density of benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain following chronic administration of antidepressants. Eur J Pharmacol 1985; 106: 673–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Suzdak PD, Gianutsos G: Differential coupling of GABA-A and GABA-B receptors to the noradrenergic system. J Neural Trans 1985a; 62: 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Suzdak PD, Gianutsos G: Parallel changes in the sensitivity of y-aminobutyric acid and noradrenergic receptors following chronic administration of antidepressant and GABAergic drugs. Neuropharmacol 1985b; 24: 217–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Suzdak PD, Gianutso G: Effect of chronic imipramine or baclofen on GABA-B binding and cyclic AMP production in cerebral cortex. Eur J Pharmacol 1986; 131: 129–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Uhlhaas S, Lanage H, Wappenschmidt J, Olek K: Free and conjugated CSF and plasma GABA in Huntington’s chorea. Acta Neurol Scand 1986; 74: 261–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zacharko RM, Anisman H: Pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral analyses of depression: Animal models. In: Koob GF, Ehlers CL, Kupfer DJ (Eds.), Animal Models of Depression. Boston: Birkhauser, 1989, 204–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zachmann M, Tocci P, Nyhan WL: The occurrence of y-aminobutyric acid in human tissues other than brain. J Biol Chem 1966; 241: 1355–1358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zimmer R, Teelken AW, Meier KD, Acken-Heil M, Zander KJ: Preliminary studies on CSF y-aminobutyric acid levels in psychiatric patients before and during treatment with different psychotropic drugs. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol 1980; 4: 613–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zivkovic B, Scatton B, Dedek J, Bartholini G: GABA influence on noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission: Implications in mood regulation. In: Langer SZ, et al. (Eds.), New Vistas in Depression, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982, 195–201.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick Petty
    • 1
  • Gerald L. Kramer
    • 1
  • William Hendrickse
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical SchoolDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations