Sources and Targets of Cytokines in the Central Nervous System

  • D. Giulian
  • Johnson George
Part of the Altschul Symposia Series book series (ALSS, volume 2)


Cytokines may be defined as soluble proteins that mediate immune responses. They now include a variety of molecules such as interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, interferons, and colony stimulating factors (Dinarello, 1987; Dinarello,1988, Metcalf, 1984). Typically these agents have been identified by in vitro assays which employ lymphoid cells or monocytoid cells as sources or targets. When examined outside the immune system, cytokines are often found to be pluripotent and take on subtle or opposing functions than those identified by cell culture. It is becoming clear that the traditional definition of a cytokine (based upon an in vitro assay) may not, in fact, reflect physiologic function.


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Cerebral Malaria Mononuclear Phagocyte Central Nervous System Injury Central Nervous System Inflammation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Dinarello, C.A., 1987, The biology of interleukin-1 and a comparison to tumor necrosis factor. Immunol. Letts. 16: 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dinarello, C.A., 1988, Biology of interleukin-1. FEBS. 2: 108–115.Google Scholar
  3. Fagan, A. M. and Gauge, F.H., 1990, Cholinergic sprouting in the hippocampus: a proposed role for IL-1. Exp. Neurol. 100: 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fontanna, A. et al.., 1982, Production of prostaglandin E and interleukin-1 like factor by cultured astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. J. Immunol. 129: 2413–2415.Google Scholar
  5. Giulian, D. and Lachman, L.B., 1985, Interleukin-1 stimulates astroglial proliferation after brain injury. Science 228: 497–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giulian, D. and Baker, T.J., 1985, Peptides released by ameboid microglia regulate astroglial proliferation. J. Cell Biol. 101: 2411–2415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Giulian, D and Baker T.J., 1986, Characterization of ameboid microglia isolated from developing mammalian brain. J. Neurosci. 6: 2163–2178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Giulian, D., Young, D.G., and Lachman, L.B., 1986, Interleukin-1 of the central nervous system: production by ameboid microglia. J. Exp. Med. 164: 594–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giulian, D., 1987, Ameboid microglia as effectors of inflammation in the central nervous system. J. Neurosci. Res. 18: 155–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Giulian, D.. and Ingeman J., 1988, Colony stimulating factors as activators of ameboid microglia. J. Neurosci. 8: 4701–4712.Google Scholar
  11. Giulian, D., Woodward, J., Young, D., Krebs, J.F., and Lachman, L.B., 1988, Intracerebral injections of interleukin-1 stimulates astrogliosis and neovascularization. J. Neurosci. 5: 2485–2490.Google Scholar
  12. Giulian, D., Chen, J., George, J., and Noponen, M., 1989, The role of mononuclear phagocytes in wound healing after traumatic injury to the adult mammalian brain. J. Neurosci. 9: 4416–4429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Giulian, D. and Robertson, C., 1990, Inhibition of mononuclear phagocytes improves functional recovery after damage to the spinal cord of rabbit. Ann. Neurol., 27: 33–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giulian, D., Johnson, B. Krebs, J.F., George, J. and Tapscott, M., 1991, Microglial mitogens are produced in the developing and injured mammalian brain. J. Cell Biol. 112: 323–333.Google Scholar
  15. Giulian, D., 1992, Microglia and diseases of the nervous system, Curr. Top. Neurol. 12: 23–54.Google Scholar
  16. Graeber, M.B. et al.., 1988, Microglia cells but not astrocytes undergo mitosis following rat facial nerve anatomy. Neurosci. Lett. 85: 317–321.Google Scholar
  17. Grau, G.E., Fajardo, L.F., Piguet, P.F., Allet, B., Lambert, P.H., and Vassalli, P., 1987, Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) as an essential mediator in murine cerebral malaria. Science 237: 1210–1212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Griffin W.S. et al., Brain IL-1 and S-100 in Downs Syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 86: 7611–7615.Google Scholar
  19. Hetier E. et al., 1988, Brain macrophages synthesize IL-1 and IL-1 mRNA in vitro. J. Neurosci. Res. 21: 391–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hickey, W.S., 1991, T-cell entry and antigen recognition in the central nervous system. In: Psychoneuroimmunology. Eds. R. Adair, D. Felton, and N. Cohen; Academic Press, NY; pp. 149–175.Google Scholar
  21. Higgins, G.A., Olschowka, J.A., 1991, Induction of interleukin-1 in adult rat brain. Molec. Brain Res. 9: 143–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Le, J. and Vilvek, J., 1987, Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1: cytokines with multiple overlapping biological activities. Lab. Invest. 56: 234–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Metcalf, D., 1984, The Hemopoietic Colony Stimulating Factors. Elsevier Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Metcalf, D., 1985, The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors. Science 299: 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rio-Hortega, P. del., 1932, Microglia. In:Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System. edited by W. Penfield, New York. Paul P. Hocker, Inc. pp.481–584.Google Scholar
  26. Sawada, M., Kondo, N., Suzumura, A., Marunouchi, T., 1989, Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by microglia and astrocytes in culture. Brain Res. 491: 394–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Giulian
    • 1
  • Johnson George
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations