An Oxidant Sensor at the Plasma Membrane
The expression of genes is predominantly determined by conditions of the microenvironment of cells. Prime examples of such regulation are found in embryonic development of all multicellular organisms and also in the adult when various cytokines and hormones exert highly inducer-specific influences on genes. The naturally occurring regulating agents interact with specific receptors: e.g., the retinoids, vitamin D3, thyroid hormones and the steroid hormones with appropriate nuclear receptors (RARs, RXRs, VDR and the specific steroid hormone receptors), or the members of the large TGFβ and FGF families with their respective cell surface receptors. While nuclear receptors act as transcription factors themselves and select their genes by receptor-specific recognition elements, the growth factors induce, through their cell surface receptors, a complex process of signal transduction to the nucleus (for reviews see Beato, 1989; Karin, 1994; Gilbert, 1994; Angel and Herrlich, 1994; McCormick, 1995; Howe and Weiss, 1995; Ullrich and Simon, 1995).
KeywordsPhenol Tyrosine Glutathione Superoxide Cysteine
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