Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis

Role of Xenobiotics in Epithelial Inflammation
  • Diane E. Heck
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 387)


The squamous epithelium, which comprises the outermost barrier to the environment, functions as the primary initial site of xenobiotic insult. Following xenobiotic insult, the epithelium responds by producing a complex inflammatory micro-environment. During inflammation, hyperplasia, edema as well as leukocyte infiltration are typically observed (Adams, 1993). Stromal cells, keratinocytes in the case of the skin, resident immune-type dendritic cells, and infiltrating leukocytes release an array of cytokines and inflammatory mediators that regulate the inflammatory process. Initially, these mediators induce increased vascular permeability, which in turn facilitates an influx of serum-derived factors including complement, hormones, leukotrienes and cytokines (Camp, 1990, Gallo, 1989). These mediators then enhance recruitment of additional leukocytes to the site of xenobiotic insult as well as stimulating the proliferation of resident epithelial cells and fibroblasts. This later effect is required for the resolution of inflammation and successful wound repair (Friedman, 1993, Knighton, 1991, Kupper, 1990).


Epidermal Growth Factor Nitric Oxide Cutaneous Wound Healing Epidermal Growth Factor Treatment Intrinsic Tyrosine Kinase Activity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diane E. Heck
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

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