Advertisement

Shift-Reagent-Aided 23Na NMR Spectroscopy in Cellular, Tissue, and Whole-Organ Systems

  • Sandra K. Miller
  • Gabriel A. Elgavish
Part of the Biological Magnetic Resonance book series (BIMR, volume 11)

Abstract

Nondestructive observation of intracellular sodium (Nai) levels is of utmost clinical and biochemical importance. In viable cells, a 10- to 20-fold concentration gradient between Nai and extracellular sodium (Na0) is maintained. Deviation from this gradient is an important indicator of detrimental processes. Therefore, it may be a valuable parameter for the assessment of cell viability and reversibility of normal function following damage, e.g., an ischemic insult.

Keywords

Perfuse Heart Intracellular Sodium Left Ventricular Develop Pressure Shift Reagent Extracellular Sodium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abragam, A., 1961, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, pp. 257–261, Oxford University Press (Clarendon), London.Google Scholar
  2. Abragam, A., and Bleaney, B., 1970, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions,Chapter 5, Oxford University Press (Clarendon), London.Google Scholar
  3. Albert, M. S., Lee, J.-H., Patlak, C. S., Fenstermacher, J. D., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1990a, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. 1: 36.Google Scholar
  4. Albert, M. S., Lee, J.-H., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1990b, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. p. 1269.Google Scholar
  5. Ammann, H., Boulanger, Y., and Vinay, P., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 16: 368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson., S. E., Adorante, J. S., and Cala, P. M., 1988, Am. J. PhysioL 254: C466.Google Scholar
  7. Avison, M. J., Gullans, S. R., Ogino, T., Giebisch, G., and Shulman, R. G., 1987, Am. J. PhysioL 253: C126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Balschi, J. A., and Pohost, G. M., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. 2: 798.Google Scholar
  9. Balschi, J. A., Cirillo, V. P., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1982, Biophys. J. 38: 323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balschi, J. A., Kohler, S. J., Bittl, J. A., Springer, C. S., Jr., and Ingwall, J. S., 1989, J. Magn. Reson. 83: 138.Google Scholar
  11. Balschi, J. A., Bittl, J. A., Springer, C. S., Jr., and Ingwall, J. S., 1990, NMR Biomed. 3: 47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Banni, S., Casu, M., Corongiu, F. P., Dessi, M. A., Lai, A., and Meloni, C., 1987, Chem. Biol. Int. 63: 207.Google Scholar
  13. Bârâny, M., and Venkatasubramanian, P. N., 1986, Physiol. Chem. Phys. Med. NMR, 18: 233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bax, A., 1982, Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Liquids, Delft University Press/Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 157–161.Google Scholar
  15. Berendsen, H. J. C., and Edzes, H. T., 1973, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 204: 459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernard, M., and Ingwall, J. S., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. 2: 801.Google Scholar
  17. Bleaney, B., 1972, J. Magn. Reson. 8: 91.Google Scholar
  18. Blum, H., Schnall, M. D., Chance, B. and Buzby, G. P., 1988a, Am. J. PhysioL 255: C377.Google Scholar
  19. Blum, H., Schnall, M. D., Renshaw, P. F., and Buzby, G. P., 1988b, Circ. Shock 26: 341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bogusky, R. T., Garwood, M., Matson, G. B., Acosta, G., Cowgill, L. D., and Schleich, T., 1986, Magn. Reson. Med. 3: 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Boulanger, Y., and Vinay, P., 1989, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 67: 820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Boulanger, Y., Vinay, P., and Desroches, M., 1985, Biophys. J. 47: 553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boulanger, Y., Vinay, P., and Boulanger, M., 1987, Am. J. Physiol. 253: F904.Google Scholar
  24. Bowers, J. L., Metz, K. R., Kruskal, J. B., Lee, R. G. L., Lanir, A., and Clouse, M. E., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. 2: 807.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, M. A., Stenzel, T. T., Ribeiro, A. A., Drayer, B. P., and Spicer, L. D., 1986, Magn. Reson. Med. 3: 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bull, T. E., 1972, J. Magn. Reson. 8: 344.Google Scholar
  27. Burstein, D., 1988, Biophys. J. 54: 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Burstein, D., and Fossel, E. T., 1987a, J. Magn. Reson. 73: 150.Google Scholar
  29. Burstein, D., and Fossel, E. T., 1987b, Magn. Reson. Med. 4: 261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burstein, D., and Fossel, E. T., 1987c, Am. J. Physiol. 252: H1138.Google Scholar
  31. Buster, D. C., Castro, M. M. C. A., Geraldes, C. F. G. C., Malloy, C. R., Sherry, A. D., and Siemers, T. C., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 15: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cala, P. M., Anderson, S. E., and Cragoe, E. J., Jr., 1988, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 90A: 551Google Scholar
  33. Castle, A. M., Macnab, R. M., and Shulman, R. G., 1986a, J. BioL Chem. 261: 3288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Castle, A. M., Macnab, R. M., and Shulman, R. G., 1986b, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 7797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Casu, M., Corongiu, F. P., Dessi, M. A., Frau, M., and Lai, A., 1986, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 134: 1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chu, W.-J., Kim, S. K., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1990a, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:916.Google Scholar
  37. Chu, S. C.-K., Xu, Y., Balschi, J. A., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1990b, Magn. Reson. Med. 13: 239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Civan, M. M., and Shporer, M., 1978, in Biological Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 1 (L. J. Berliner and J. Reuben, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 1.Google Scholar
  39. Civan, M. M., Degani, H., Margalit, Y., and Shporer, M., 1983, Am. J. Physiol. 245: C213.Google Scholar
  40. Commodari, F., Tauskela, J. S., Sanctuary, B. C., and Shoubridge, E. A., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Abstr. p. 1101.Google Scholar
  41. Cope, F. W., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54: 225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cope, F. W., 1967, J. Gen. PhysioL 50: 1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cope, F. W., 1970, Biophys. J. 10: 843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cowan, B. E., Sze, D. Y., Mai, M. T., and Jardetzky, O., 1985, FEBS Lett. 184: 130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Degani, H., and Elgavish, G. A., 1978, FEBS Lett. 90: 357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Delon, A.-M., Dauphin, G., Guyot, J., and Jeminet, G., 1989, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1013: 11.Google Scholar
  47. Eleff, S. M., Schnall, M. D., Ligetti, L., Osbakken, M., Subramanian, V. H., Chance, B., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., 1988, Magn. Reson. Med. 7: 412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Elgavish, G. A., 1982, in: The Rare Earth In Modern Science and Technology (McCarthy, Silber, and Rhyne, eds.), Vol. 3, Plenum Press, New York, p. 193.Google Scholar
  49. Elgavish, G. A., 1989, Invest. Radiol. 24: 1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Elgavish, G. A., and Reuben, J., 1977, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99: 1762.Google Scholar
  51. Elgavish, G. A., Foster, R. E., Canby, R. C., and Pohost, G. M., 1987, 6th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. p. 512.Google Scholar
  52. Elgavish, G. A., Simor, T., Kim, S. K., Chu, W. J., and Pohost, G. M., 1991, 15th Int. Congr. Biochem. p. 192.Google Scholar
  53. Evans, C. H., 1990, Biochemistry of the Lanthanides, Plenum Press, New York, p. 339.Google Scholar
  54. Fernandez, E., Grandjean, J., and Laszlo, P., 1987, Eur. J. Biochem. 167: 353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fossel, E. T., and Hoefeler, H., 1986, Magn. Reson. Med. 3: 534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Foy, B. D., and Burstein, D., 1990, Biophys. J. 58: 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fukushima, E., and Roeder, S. B. W., 1981, Experimental Pulse NMR, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., p. 108.Google Scholar
  58. Golding, R. M., and Halton, M. P., 1972, Aust. J. Chem. 25: 2577.Google Scholar
  59. Golding, R. M., and Pyykkö, P., 1973, Mol. Phys. 26: 1389.Google Scholar
  60. Gonzales, F., Harris, C., and Bassingthwaighte, J. B., 1980, Physiologist 23: 78.Google Scholar
  61. Greenfield, N. J., Cherapak, C. N., Adebodun, F., Jordan, F., and Lenard, J., 1990, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1025: 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gueron, M., 1975, J. Magn. Reson. 19: 58.Google Scholar
  63. Gullans, S. R., Avison, M. J., Ogino, T., Giebisch, G., and Shulman, R. G., 1985, Am. J. Physiol. 249: F160.Google Scholar
  64. Gullapalli, R. P., Hawk, R. M., and Komoroski, R. A., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. 9th Annu. Meet. Abstr. p. 1271.Google Scholar
  65. Gupta, R. K., 1987, in NMR Spectroscopy of Cells and Organs, Vol. 2 (Gupta, R. K., ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., p. 1.Google Scholar
  66. Gupta, R. K., and Gupta, P., 1982, J. Magn. Reson. 47: 344.Google Scholar
  67. Gupta, R. K., Kostellow, A. B., and Morrill, G. A., 1985, J. Biot Chem. 260: 9203.Google Scholar
  68. Höfeler, H., Jensen, D., Pike, M. M., Delayre, J. L., Cirillo, V. P., Springer, C. S., Jr., Fossel, E. T., and Balschi, J. A., 1987, Biochemistry 26: 4953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hotchkiss, R. S., Song, S.-K., Ling, C. S., Ackerman, J. J. H., and Karl, I. E., 1990, Am. J. Physiol. 258: R21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hubbard, P. S., 1970, J. Chem. Phys. 53: 985.Google Scholar
  71. Jans, A. W. H., William, R., Kellenbach, E. R., and Kinne, R. K., 1988, Magn. Reson. Med. 7: 292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jelicks, L. A., and Gupta, R. K., 1989a, J. Magn. Reson. 81: 586.Google Scholar
  73. Jelicks, L. A., and Gupta, R. K., 1989b, J. Magn. Reson. 83: 146.Google Scholar
  74. Jelicks, L. A., and Gupta, R. K., 1989c, J. Biol. Chem. 264: 15230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jelicks, L. A., and Gupta, R. K., 1990, J. Biol. Chem. 265: 1394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jelicks, L. A., Weaver, J., Pollack, S., and Gupta, R. K., 1989, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1012: 261.Google Scholar
  77. Joseph, P. M., and Summers, R. M., 1987, Magn. Reson. Med. 4: 67.Google Scholar
  78. Knubovets, T. L., Revazov, A. V., Sibeldina, L. A., and Eichhoff, U., 1989, Magn. Reson. Med. 9: 261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kohler, S. J., Ingwall, J. S., and Kolodny, N. H., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 1:39.Google Scholar
  80. Kohler, S. J., Perry, S. B., Stuart, L. C., Atkinson, D. E., Clarke, K., and Ingwall, J. S., 1991, Magn. Reson. Med. 18: 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kolodny, N. H., Kohler, S., Weinberg, D., Burr, T., Celi, A., D’Amico, D., and Gragoudas, E., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:666.Google Scholar
  82. Kumar, A. M., Spitzer, A., and Gupta, R. K., 1986, Kidney Int. 29: 747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kumar, A. M., Gupta, R. K., and Spitzer, A., 1988, Kidney Int. 33: 792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kushnir, T., Kaplan, O., Askenasy, N., and Navon, G., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:982.Google Scholar
  85. Kwan, C.-Y., Seo, Y., Ito, H., Murakami, M., and Watari, H., 1987, J. Hypertens. 5: 359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lewis, W. B., Jackson, J. A., Lemons, J. F., and Taube, J., 1962, J. Chem. Phys. 36: 694.Google Scholar
  87. Liebling, M. S., and Gupta, R. K., 1987, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 508: 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lotan, C., Miller, S. K., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1988, 7th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. p. 37.Google Scholar
  89. Lotan, C., Miller, S. K., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1992, J. Mol. Cell. CardioL 24: 243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lyon, R. C., Pekar, J., Moonen, C. T. W., and McLaughlin, A. C., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 1:37.Google Scholar
  91. Magnuson, J. A., Shelton, D. S., and Magnuson, N. S., 1970, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 39: 279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Malloy, C. R., Buster, D. C., Castro, M. M. C. A., Geraldes, C. F. G. C., Jeffrey, F. M. H., and Sherry, A. D., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 15: 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Martin, J.-B., Klein, G., and Satre, M., 1987, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 254: 559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Matwiyoff, N. A., Gasparovic, C., Wenk, R., Wicks, J. D., and Rath, A., 1986, Magn. Reson. Med. 3: 164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller, S. K., Lotan, C., Hefner, L. L., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1989, 8th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. p.497.Google Scholar
  96. Miller, S. K., Chu, W.-J., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1991, Magn. Reson. Med. 20: 184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Misra, L. K., Hazle, J. D., Kim, E. E., and Dennis, L. W., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:803.Google Scholar
  98. Monti, J.-P., Gailice, P., Crevat, A., Mehdi, M. E., Durand, C., and Murisasco, A., (1986), Clin. Chem. 32: 104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Morrill, G. A., Weinstein, S. P., Kostellow, A. B., and Gupta, R. K., 1985, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 844: 377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mukidjam, E., Elgavish, G. A., and Barnes, S., 1987, Biochemistry 26: 6785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Murakami, M., Seo, Y., Matsumoto, T., Ichikawa, O., Ikeda, A., and Watari, H., 1986, Jpn. J. Physiol. 36: 1267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Naritomi, H., Kanashiro, M., Sasaki, M., Kuribayashi, Y., and Sawada, T., 1987, Biophys. J. 52: 611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Naritomi, H., Sasaki, M., Kanashiro, M., Kitani, M., and Sawada, T., 1988, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 8: 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Navon, G., Askenasy, N., Vivi, A., and Tassini, M., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:918.Google Scholar
  105. Nissen, H., Jacobsen, J. P., and Herder, M., 1989, Magn. Reson. Med. 10: 388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ogino, T., den Hollander, J. A., and Shulman, R. G., 1983, Proc. NatL Acad. Sci. USA 80: 5185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ogino, T., Shulman, G. I., Avison, M. J., Gullans, S. R., den Hollander, J. A., and Shulman, R. G., 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ong, R. L., and Cheung, H. C., 1986, Biophys. Chem. 23: 237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ouwerkerk, R., van Echteld, C. J. A., Staal, G. E., and Rijksen, G., 1989, Magn. Reson. Med. 12: 164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Packer, L., Spath, S., Martin, J.-B., Roby, C., and Blighy, R., 1987, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 256: 354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Payne, G. S., Seymour, A.-M. L., Styles, P., and Radda, G. K., 1990, NMR Biomed 3: 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pekar, J., Lyon, R. C., Moonen, C. T. W., and McLaughlin, A. C., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:802.Google Scholar
  113. Pekar, J., Renshaw, P. F., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 72: 159.Google Scholar
  114. Pettegrew, J. W., Woessner, D. E., Minshew, N. J., and Gloner, T., 1984, J. Magn. Reson. 57: 185.Google Scholar
  115. Pike, M. M., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1982, J. Magn. Reson. 46: 348.Google Scholar
  116. Pike, M. M., Fossel, E. T., Smith, T. W., and Springer, C. S., Jr., 1984, Am. J. Physiol. 246: C528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Pike, M. M., Frazier, J. C., Dedrick, D. F., Ingwall, J. S., Allen, P. D., Springer, C. S., Jr., and Smith, T. W., 1985, Biophys. J. 48: 159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Pike, M., Clark, D., Kitakaze, M., Madden, M., Golden, L., Cragoe, E., and Pohost, G. M., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 1:40.Google Scholar
  119. Pilatus, U., Degani, H., and Pecht, I., 1990, FEBS Lett. 269: 292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Post, J., 1989, Scanning Microsc. 3: 877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Prince, L. S., Miller, S. K., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1992, Magn. Reson. Med. 23: 376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rayson, B. M., and Gupta, R. K., 1985, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 7276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Renshaw, P. F., Blum, H., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., 1986, J. Magn. Reson. 69: 523.Google Scholar
  124. Reuben, J., and Elgavish, G. A., 1979, in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (K. A. Gschneider, Jr., and L. Eyring, Eds.), North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  125. Reuben, J., and Fiat, D., 1967a, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1967: 729.Google Scholar
  126. Reuben, J., and Fiat, D., 19676, J. Chem. Phys. 47: 5440.Google Scholar
  127. Reuben, J., and Fiat, D., 1969a, J. Chem. Phys. 51: 4909.Google Scholar
  128. Reuben, J., and Fiat, D., 1969b, J. Chem. Phys. 51: 4918.Google Scholar
  129. Schmidt, V. H., 1972, in Proc. Ampère Int. Summer School II (R. Blinc, ed.), University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, p. 75.Google Scholar
  130. Schnall, M. D., Yoshizaki, K., Chance, B., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., Magn. Reson. Med. 6: 15.Google Scholar
  131. Seo, Y., Murakami, M., Matsumoto, T., Nishikawa, H., and Watari, H., 1987, Pflugers Arch. 409: 343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Seo, Y., Murakami, M., and Watari, H., 1990, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1034: 142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sherry, A. D., Malloy, C. R., Jeffrey, F. M. H., Cacheris, W. P., and Geraldes, C. F. G. C., 1988, J. Magn. Reson. 76: 528.Google Scholar
  134. Shinar, H., and Navon, G., 1984, Biophys. Chem. 20: 275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Shporer, M., and Civan, M. M., 1972, Biophys. J. 12: 114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Shporer, M., and Civan, M. M., 1974, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 354: 291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Simor, T., Kim, S. K., Chu, W. J., Pohost, G. M., and Elgavish, G. A., 1991, 10th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. p. 1189.Google Scholar
  138. Sink, R. M., Buster, D. C., and Sherry, A. D., 1990, Inorg. Chem. 29: 3645.Google Scholar
  139. Springer, C. S., Jr., 1987, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 16: 375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sze, D. Y., Corbelletta, N. L., Shochat, S. J., and Jardetzky, O., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 13: 14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. van Echteld, C. J. A., van Nieuwenhoven, M. A., van der Meer, P., and Ruigrok, T. J. C., 1990, 9th Annu. Meet. Soc. Magn. Reson. Med. Abstr. 2:799.Google Scholar
  142. Vega, A. J., and Fiat, D., 1976, Mol. Phys. 11: 347.Google Scholar
  143. Vogel, H. J., and Braunlin, W. H., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 62: 42.Google Scholar
  144. Wittenberg, B. A., and Gupta, R. K., 1985, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra K. Miller
    • 1
  • Gabriel A. Elgavish
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine and Department of BiochemistryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations