Advertisement

Localization in Clinical NMR Spectroscopy

  • Lizann Bolinger
  • Robert E. Lenkinski
Part of the Biological Magnetic Resonance book series (BIMR, volume 11)

Abstract

Over the past decade, there has been a rapid proliferation of MR imagers into the diagnostic medical community. These scanners are used daily to provide anatomically based images in which the contrast is derived from differences in the intrinsic NMR properties (e.g., spin density, relaxation times, rates of diffusion) of the chemical constituents (i.e., fat and water) of the tissues being imaged. In the diagnostic setting, these images are used to both visualize and characterize abnormalities. It has proven to be difficult to completely characterize abnormalities based on the signal intensities observed on MRI alone. There have been a number of approaches that are based on MRI-derived methods such as contrast-enhanced MR imaging, MR diffusion and perfusion imaging as well as MR angiography, which are directed at obtaining so-called “functional” rather than anatomically based contrast. The ability of NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolic processes noninvasively in living systems provides an attractive complementary technique for the characterization of tissue. In addition to this diagnostic application, NMR spectroscopy also has the potential to monitor the metabolic consequences of therapeutic intervention in order to provide early indicators of the success or failure of the intervention. It is reasonable to expect that metabolic changes that occur in the course of therapy precede any anatomical changes that might be observed on MRI.

Keywords

Flip Angle Localization Method Surface Coil Gradient Coil Localize Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackerman, J. J. H., Grove, T. H., Wong, G. G., Gadian, D. G., and Radda, G. K., 1980, Nature 283: 167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn, C. B., and Cho, Z. H., 1991, Magn. Reson. Med. 17: 149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allman, T., Holland, G. A., Lenkinski, R. E., and Charles, H. C., 1988, Magn. Reson. Med. 7: 88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aue, W. P., 1986, Rev. Magn. Reson. Med. 1: 21.Google Scholar
  5. Aue, W. P., Mueller, S., Cross, T. A., and Seelig, J., 1984, J. Magn. Reson. 56: 350.Google Scholar
  6. Axel, L., 1990, A Method for Rapid One-Dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging, RSNA Abstr., p. 133.Google Scholar
  7. Bendall, M. R., and Gordon, R. E., 1983, J. Magn. Reson. 53: 365.Google Scholar
  8. Blackledge, M. J., Rajagopalan, B., Oberhaensli, R. D., Bolas, N. M., Styles, P., and Radda, G. K., 1987, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 4283.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolinger, L., 1989, A Novel Technique for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Using Hadamard Transforms, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  10. Bolinger, L., and Leigh, J. S., 1988, J. Magn. Reson. 80: 162.Google Scholar
  11. Bottomley, P. A., 1984, Selective Volume Method for Performing Localized NMR Spectroscopy, U.S. Patent 4, 480–228.Google Scholar
  12. Bottomley, P. A., 1989, Radiology 170: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bottomley, P. A., Foster, T. B., and Darrow, R. D., 1984, J. Magn. Reson. 59: 338.Google Scholar
  14. Bottomley, P. A., Smith, L. S., Leue, W. M., and Charles, H. C., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 64: 347.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, T. R., Kincaid, B. M., and Ugurbil, K., 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3523.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Buchtal, S. D., Thoma, W. J., Taylor, J. S., Nelson, S. J., and Brown, T. R., 1989, NMR Biomed. 2: 298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buxton, R. B., Brady, T. J., Wismer, G. L., and Rosen, B. R., 1988, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2nd ed., Vol. I I ( Partain C. L., Price, R. R., Patton, J. A., Kulkarni, M. V., and James, A. E., Jr., eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  18. Cooper, J. W., 1983, The Minicomputer in the Laboratory, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Cox, I. J., Coutts, G. A., Gadian, D. G., Ghosh, P., Sargentoni, J., and Young, I. R., 1991, Magn. Reson. Med. 17: 53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eleff, S. M., Subramanian, V. H., Shinnar, M., Renn, S., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 72: 298.Google Scholar
  21. Ernst, R. R., 1966, Adv. Magn. Reson. 2: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frahm, J., Merboldt, K. D., Hanicke, W., and Haase, A., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 64: 81Google Scholar
  23. Frahm, J., Merboldt, K. D., and Hanicke, W., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 72: 502.Google Scholar
  24. Frahm, J., Bruhn, H., Gyngell, M. L., Merboldt, K. D., Hanicke, W., and Sauter, R., 1989a, Magn. Reson. Med. 9: 79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frahm, J., Bruhn, H., Gyngell, M. L., Merboldt, K. D., Hanicke, W., and Sauter, R., 19896, Magn. Reson. Med. 11: 47.Google Scholar
  26. Galloway, G. J., Brereton, I. M., Brooks, W. M., Field, J., Irving, M., Baddeley, H., and Doddrell, D. M., 1987, Magn. Reson. Med. 4: 393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garwood, M., Schleich, T., Matson, G. B., and Acosta, A., 1984, J. Magn. Reson. 60: 268.Google Scholar
  28. Garwood, M., Schleich, T., Ross, B. D., Matson, G. B., and Winters, W. D., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 65: 239.Google Scholar
  29. Garwood, M., Schleich, T., and Bendall, M. R., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 73: 191.Google Scholar
  30. Goelman, G., and Leigh, J. S., Jr., 1991, J. Magn. Reson. 91: 93.Google Scholar
  31. Gorenstein, D. G., 1984, in Phosphorus-31 NMR: Principles and Applications (Gorenstein, D. G., ed.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Granot, J., 1986, J. Magn. Reson. 70: 488.Google Scholar
  33. Griffey, R. H., and Flamig, D. P., 1990, J. Magn. Reson. 88: 161.Google Scholar
  34. Haase, A., 1986, Magn. Reson. Med. 3: 963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haase, A., and Frahm, J., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 64: 94.Google Scholar
  36. Haase, A., Frahm, J., Hanicke, W., and Matthei, D., 1985, Phys. Med. Biol. 30: 341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hafner, H.-P., Radu, E., and Seelig, J., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 15: 135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hahn, E. L., 1950, Phys. Rev. 80: 580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haselgrove, J. C., Subramanian, V. H., Leigh, J. S., Jr., Gyulai, L., and Chance, B., 1983, Science 220: 1170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hore, P. J., 1983, J. Magn. Reson. 55: 283.Google Scholar
  41. Hoult, D. I., 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 33: 183.Google Scholar
  42. Hu, X., Levin, D. N., Lauterbur, P. C., and Spraggins, T., 1988, Magn. Reson. Med. 8: 314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jensen, D. J., Narayana, P. A., and Delayre, J. L., 1987, Med. Phys. 14: 38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimmich, R., and Hoepfel, D., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 72: 379.Google Scholar
  45. Kimmich, R., Rommel, E., and Knuttel, A., 9189, J. Magn. Reson. 81: 333.Google Scholar
  46. Klose, U., 1990, Magn. Reson. Med. 14: 26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kreis, R., Farrow, N., and Ross, B. D., 1991, NMR Biomed. 4: 109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Luyten, P. R., and den Hollander, J. A., 1986, Magn. Reson. Imag. 4: 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Luyten, P. R., Groen, J.P., Vermullen, J. W. A. H., and den Hollander, J. A., 1989, Magn. Reson. Med. 11: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maudsley, A. A., 1986, J. Magn. Reson. 68: 363.Google Scholar
  51. Maudsley, A. A., Hilal, S. K., Perman, W. H., and Simon, H. E., 1983, J. Magn. Reson. 51: 147Google Scholar
  52. Merboldt, K. D., Chien, D., Bruhn, H., Gyngell, M. L., Hanicke, W., and Frahm, J., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med., Abstr. 9th Annu. Meet., Vol. 2, p. 1066.Google Scholar
  53. Moonen, C. T. W., and van Zijl, P. C. M., 1990, J. Magn. Reson. 88: 28.Google Scholar
  54. Moonen, C. T. W., Kienlin, M. V., van Zijl, P. C. M., Cohen, J., Gillen, J., Daly, P., and Wolf, G., 1989, NMR Biomed. 2: 201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mueller, A., Aue, W. P., and Seelig, J., 1985a, J. Magn. Reson. 65: 332.Google Scholar
  56. Mueller, S., Aue, W. P., and Seelig, J., 1985b, J. Magn. Reson. 63: 87.Google Scholar
  57. Muller, S., Hafner, H.-P., and Beckman, N., 1989, NMR Biomed. 4: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Narayana, P. A., and Delayre, J. L., 1988, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2nd ed., Vol. I I ( Partain, C. L., Price, R. R., Patton, J. A., Kulkarni, M. V., and James, A. E., Jr., eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  59. Ordidge, R. J., and Cresshull, I. D., 1986, J. Magn. Reson. 69: 151.Google Scholar
  60. Ordidge, R. J., Connelly, A., and Lohman, J. A. B., 1986, J. Magn. Reson. 66: 283.Google Scholar
  61. Ordidge, R. J., Mansfield, P., Lohman, J. A. B., and Prime, S. B., 1987, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 508: 376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ordidge, R. J., Bowley, R. M., and McHale, G., 1988, Magn. Reson. Med. 8: 323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pekar, J., Leigh, J. S., and Chance, B., 1985, J. Magn. Reson. 64: 115.Google Scholar
  64. Plateau, P., Dumas, C., and Gueron, M., 1983, J. Magn. Reson. 54: 46.Google Scholar
  65. Posse, S., Lazeyras, F., Herschkowitz, N., Aue, W. P., and Charles, H. C., 1990, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med., Abstr. 9th Annu. Meet., Vol. 2, p. 993.Google Scholar
  66. Radda, G. K., Rajagopalan, B., and Taylor, D. J., 1989, Magn. Reson. Q. 5: 112.Google Scholar
  67. Riddle, W. R., Gibbs, S. J., and Willcott, M. R., 1992, Magn. Reson. Med.,in press.Google Scholar
  68. Rothman, D. L., Behar, K. L., Hetherington, H. P., den Hollander, J. A., Bendall, M. R.Google Scholar
  69. Petroff, O. A. C., and Shulman, R. G., 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 1633.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Sauter, R., Mueller, S., and Weber, H., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 75: 167.Google Scholar
  71. Seeholzer, S. H., 1985, Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Cardiac Metabolism, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  72. Shinnar, M., and Leigh, J. S., 1987, J. Magn. Reson. 75: 502.Google Scholar
  73. Shinnar, M., Bolinger, L., and Leigh, J. S., 1989a, Magn. Reson. Med. 12: 88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shinnar, M., Bolinger, L., and Leigh, J. S., 19896, Magn. Reson. Med. 12: 81.Google Scholar
  75. Spielman, D., Meyer, C., Mackovski, A., and Enzmann, D., 1991, Magn. Reson. Med. 18: 269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Styles, P., Scott, C. A., and Radda, G. K., 1985, Magn. Reson. Med. 2: 409.Google Scholar
  77. Styles, P., Blackledge, M. J., Moonen, C. T. W., and Radda, G. K., 1987, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 508: 349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Turner, C. J., and Garlick, P. B., 1984, J. Magn. Reson. 57: 221.Google Scholar
  79. van Zijl, P. C. M., Moonen, C. T. W., and von Kienlin, M., 1989, Soc. Magn. Reson. Med., Abstr. 8th Annu. Meet., Vol. 2, p. 646.Google Scholar
  80. Vogele, K., 1991, In Vivo Two-Dimensional Proton to Phosphorus Polarization Transfer Using Surface Coils, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  81. Wang, Z., Bolinger, L., Subramanian, H. V., and Leigh, J. S., 1991, J. Magn. Reson. 92: 64.Google Scholar
  82. Wiener, M. W., 1990, Administrative Radiology p. 34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lizann Bolinger
    • 1
  • Robert E. Lenkinski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations