Respiratory fluid dynamics — energy loss and pressure drop in airways; forced expiration; gas mixing in airways, especially during high frequency ventilation; surface tension effects in airway closure.
Peristaltic pumping in the ureter — the conventional concentration on flow within the ureter is now being supplemented by detailed modelling of the contraction of ureteral smooth muscle, against the loads provided by the hydrodynamics, in response to the propagating activation signal.
Fish swimming — a similar development is taking place in this area: observations of the motion of a fish body can be used not only to compute the time-dependent hydrodynamic forces acting on it, but also to infer the distribution of bending moment along the fish and, with data on the mechanical properties of the tissues, to calculate the forces and rates of contraction of the swimming muscles. The results can be compared with new measurements of muscle properties at different distances along the fish.
Bioconvection, or spontaneous pattern — formation in dense populations of swimming micro-organisms (certain algae and bacteria in particular). Intriguing experimental observations will be shown and a qualitative explanation given. The need for a stochastic model of random changes in a cell’s swimming trajectory will be emphasised.
KeywordsBiomass Vortex Surfactant Convection Torque
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