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New Perspectives in Biological Fluid Dynamics

  • T. J. Pedley

Abstract

The subject of biological fluid dynamics is divided into two major parts, internal or physiological fluid dynamics and external fluid dynamics (e. g. swimming and flying) or the interaction of living organisms with their fluid environment. This review will discuss several topics in each category, surveying recent progress and indicating probable growth areas in the near future. The emphasis will be on mechanisms and scientific understanding rather than clinical results. Disproportionately little attention will be paid to cardiovascular fluid dynamics because a disproportionately large number of papers were devoted to it at the World Congress. Otherwise the major topics to be considered are:
  1. (i)

    Respiratory fluid dynamics — energy loss and pressure drop in airways; forced expiration; gas mixing in airways, especially during high frequency ventilation; surface tension effects in airway closure.

     
  2. (ii)

    Peristaltic pumping in the ureter — the conventional concentration on flow within the ureter is now being supplemented by detailed modelling of the contraction of ureteral smooth muscle, against the loads provided by the hydrodynamics, in response to the propagating activation signal.

     
  3. (iii)

    Fish swimming — a similar development is taking place in this area: observations of the motion of a fish body can be used not only to compute the time-dependent hydrodynamic forces acting on it, but also to infer the distribution of bending moment along the fish and, with data on the mechanical properties of the tissues, to calculate the forces and rates of contraction of the swimming muscles. The results can be compared with new measurements of muscle properties at different distances along the fish.

     
  4. (iv)

    Bioconvection, or spontaneous pattern — formation in dense populations of swimming micro-organisms (certain algae and bacteria in particular). Intriguing experimental observations will be shown and a qualitative explanation given. The need for a stochastic model of random changes in a cell’s swimming trajectory will be emphasised.

     

Keywords

Wall Shear Stress Liquid Bridge Oscillatory Flow Surface Tension Effect Secondary Motion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. Pedley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Mathematical StudiesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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