Advertisement

Use of Agricultural and Municipal Organic Wastes to Develop Suppressiveness to Plant Pathogens

  • Andreas Tränkner
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 230)

Abstract

Research on biological control and natural suppression of fungal plant pathogens has significantly increased worldwide during the last decade (Janisiewicz, 1988; Park et al., 1988; Shimshoni et al., 1988; Sztejnberg et al., 1988). Although research has often concentrated on individual microorganisms, the use of complex organic substrates has been shown to be effective in protecting plant health (Hoitink and Kuter, 1986; Mandelbaum et al., 1990; Spring et al., 1980). Composted organic material such as plant debris and animal manure have been used for more than 2,000 years to improve soil fertility. It is known that there is a close connection between soil-borne plant disease occurrence and the organic matter content in the soil (Lumsden et al., 1983b). Balanced nutrition with compost has been considered fundamental for maintaining health through its influence on plant resistance mechanisms (Chaboussou, 1985). The importance of composted organic material in suppressing soilborne pathogens has often been demonstrated (Hadar and Mandelbaum, 1986; Hoitink et al., 1977; Hoitink and Fahy, 1986; Lumsden et al., 1983a; Spencer and Benson, 1982). Most of these studies pointed out a suppressive mechanism of action. Hoitink (1980) and Reinmuth and Bochow (1960), however, showed that composted organic material may promote disease. In most disease-suppression instances, stimulation of antagonistic microorganisms in the rhizosphere or induced defence reactions in the host plant tissue are considered responsible for the beneficial effects (Harman and Lumsden, 1990).

Keywords

Powdery Mildew Cattle Manure Soilborne Pathogen Compost Amendment Grape Marc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Andrews, J. H., Berbee, F. M., and Nordheim, E. V., 1983, Microbial antagonism to the imperfect stage of the apple scab pathogen, Venturia ineaqualis Phytopathology, 73: 228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker, J., Weltzien, H. C., and Tränkner, A., 1990, Einsatz von nicht toxischen organischen Nährstoffen zur Bekämpfung des Weizenstein-brandes (Tilletia caries) - Versuchsergebnisse des Jahres 1988/89, Ges Pflanzen, 42: 239.Google Scholar
  3. Budde, K., and Weltzien, H. C., 1988, Phytosanitäre Wirkungen von Kompostextrakten und -substraten im Wirt-Erreger-System Gerste-Echter Mehltau (Erysiphe graminis DC f. sp. hordei Marchai ), Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent, 53: 363.Google Scholar
  4. Chaboussou, F., “Santé des Cultures”, 1985, Flammarion, La Maison Rustique, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Dittmer, U., Budde, K., Stindt, A., and Weltzien, H. C., 1990, Der Einfluß der Kompostierug von Kompostsubstraten auf verschiedene Krankheitserreger, Ges Pflanzen, 42: 219.Google Scholar
  6. Fokkema, N. J., and van den Heuvel, J., 1986, “Microbiology of the phyllosphere”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Gullino, M. L., and Garibaldi, A., 1983, Situation actuelle et persectives d’avenir de la lutte biologique et intégrée contre la pourriture grise de la vigne en Italia, Les Colleques de l’INRA, 18: 91.Google Scholar
  8. Hadar, Y., and Mandelbaum, R., 1986, Suppression of Pythium aphanidermatum damping-off in container media containing composted liquorice roots, Crop Prot., 5: 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harman, G.E., and Lumsden, R. D., 1990, Biological disease control, pages 259–280, in: “The Rhizosphere”, J. M. Lynch, ed., Wiley and Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  10. Hoitink, H. A. J., 1980, Composted bark: a lightweight growth medium with fungicidal properties, Plant Dis., 64: 142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoitink, H. A. J., and Fahy, P. C., 1986, Basis for the control of soilborne plant pathogens with composts, Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 24: 93.Google Scholar
  12. Hoitink, H. A. J., and Kuter, G. A., 1986, Effects of composts in growth media on soilborne pathogens, pages 289–306, in: “The Role of OrganicGoogle Scholar
  13. Matter in Modern Agriculture“, Y. Chen and Y. Avnimelech, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  14. Hoitink, H. A. J., Van Doren, D. M., and Schmitthenner, A. F., 1977, Suppression of Phytophthora cinnamomi in a composted hardwood bark potting medium, Phytopathology, 67: 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Janisiewcz, W. J., 1988, Biocontrol of postharvest diseases of apples with antagonistic mixtures, Phytopathology, 78: 194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ketterer, N., 1990, Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Kompost-Extrakten auf den Blattbefall der Kartoffel und Tomate durch Phytophthora infestans sowie auf den Befall der Weinrebe durch Plasmopara viticola, Pseudopeziza tracheiphila und Uncinula necator, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn.Google Scholar
  17. Lumsden, R. D., Lewis, J. A., and Millner, P. D., 1983a, Effect of composted sewage sludge on several soilborne pathogens and diseases, Phytopathology, 73: 1543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lumsden, R. D.,, Lewis, J. A., and Papavizas, G. C., 1983b, Effect of organic amendments on soilborne diseases and pathogen antagonists, pages 51–70, in: “Environmentally Sound Agriculture”, W. Lockeretz, ed., Praeger Scientific, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Mandelbaum, R., Gorodecki, B., and Hadar, Y., 1990, Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii diseases in container media containing composted separated cattle manure and composted grape marc, Crop Prot., 9: 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Park, C. S., Paulitz, T. C., and Baker, R., 1988, Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulting from interactions between Pseudomonas putida and nonpathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopathology, 78: 190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reinmuth, E., and Bochow, H., 1960, Beiträge zur Frage des Einflusses einer organischen Düngung auf den Befall von Pflanzen durch parasitische Pilze, J Phytopathology, 37: 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Samerski, C., 1989, Untersuchungen zu Wirkung und Wirkungsmechanismen von Kompostextrakten im Pathosystem Gurke (Cucumis sativus L.) - Echter Gurkenmehltau (Sphaerotheca fulginea (Schlechtendal ex Fr.) Pollacci), Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn.Google Scholar
  23. Schmidt, D., 1988, Prevention of bacterial wilt of grasses by phylloplane bacteria, J Phytopathology, 122: 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schönbeck, F., and Dehne, H. W., 1986, Use of microbial metabolites inducing resistance against plant pathogens, pages 363–375, in: “Microbiology of the Phyllosphere”, N. J. Fokkema, and J. van den Heuvel, eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Schönbeck, F., Dehne, H. W., and Balder, H., 1982, Zur Wirksamkeit induzierter Resistenz unter praktischen Anbaubedingungen I. Echter Mehltau an Reben, Gurken und Weizen, J Phytopathology, 89: 177.Google Scholar
  26. Shimshoni, G., Elad, Y., Cohen, A., and Chet, I., 1988, Biological control of grey mold disease on various crops, Phytoparasitica, 16: 66.Google Scholar
  27. Sleesman, J. P., and Leben, C., 1976, Microbial antagonists of Bipolaris maydis, Phytopathology, 66: 1214.Google Scholar
  28. Spencer, S., and Benson, D. M., 1982, Pine bark, hardwood bark compost, and peat amendment effects on development of Phytophthora spp. and lupine root rot, Phytopathology, 72: 346.Google Scholar
  29. Spring, D. E., Ellis, M. A., Spotts, R. A., Hoitink, H. A. J., and Schmitthenner, A. F., 1980, Suppression of the apple collar rot pathogen in composted hardwood bark, Phytopathology, 70: 1209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spurr, H. W., 1977, Protective applications of conidia of nonpathogenic Alternaria sp. isolates for control of tobacco brown-spot disease, Phytopathology, 67: 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Steiner, U., 1989, Zum Einfluß induzierter Resistenz auf den Wirt-ParasitKomplex Gerste-Echter Mehltau. Sortenabhängige Resistenzreaktionen und Befalls-Verlust-Relationen, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hannover.Google Scholar
  32. Stindt, A., 1990, Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und zu den Wirkungsmechanismen von Kompostextrakten auf Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex Nocca and Balb an Erdbeeren, Kopfsalat und Buschbohnen, Ph.D. Thesis, University of BonnGoogle Scholar
  33. Sztejnberg, A., Galper, S., Frumkin, O., Abo-Foul, S., and Lisker, N., 1988, Ampelomyces quisqualis for biological and integrated control of powdery mildew, Phytoparasitica, 16: 69.Google Scholar
  34. Tränkner,.A., and Kircher-Bierschenk, R., 1988, Vorläufige Ergebnisse bei der Bekämpfung des Apfelschorfes durch Extrakte aus kompostierten organischen Materialien, Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent, 53: 359.Google Scholar
  35. Tränkner, A., and Liesenfeld, R., 1990, Unterdrückung von Pythium ultimum, einer keimlingskrankheit der Erbse ( Pisum sativum) durch Saatgutbehandlung mit Kompostextrakten, Mitt Biol Bundesanst Land Forstwirtsch., 266: 64.Google Scholar
  36. Weltzien, H. C., 1991, Biocontrol of foliar fungal diseases with compost extracts, in: “Microbial Ecology of Leaves”, J. H. Andrews and S. S. Hirano, eds., Springer, New York (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Tränkner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PflanzenkrankheitenUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations