In the 30 years since the appearance of the Hodgkin—Huxley equations for membrane ionic current, their application continues to prove useful in membrane electrophysiology and, in particular, in the simulation of propagation in nerve and muscle. Important changes have occurred, however, and these have arisen out of improvements in voltage clamp techniques (leading to a better appreciation of membrane behavior). In general, these involve methods for clamping smaller and smaller membrane elements. One consequence is an extension of voltage clamp data gathered from the squid axon to other cell types, such as cardiac cells, which are otherwise too small to utilize the axial wire methodology to achieve a space-clamped condition. A further development is in the ability to actually record from single channels, and this has led to improved understanding regarding the biophysics of the ionic currents.
KeywordsPermeability Sucrose Propa Assure Dehydration
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