The Effect of Fungal Toxins on the Germination of Mitospores from Thermophilic Fungi
Fungi in several genera produce toxins that vary in toxicity to humans and animals. The most prominent fungal toxins are those that are used as antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, and their effect on pathogenic microbes is well known. The lesser known fungal toxins include those produced by Penicillium species (citreoviridin, penicillic acid, gliotoxin, patulin), Aspergillus species (aflatoxin, citrinin, gliotoxin, helvolic acid, ochratoxin, patulin), Trichoderma species (gliotoxin), Stemphilium (radicinin), Gibberella and Fusarium (zearalanone). Some toxigenic fungi (A. fumigatus A. flavus A. parasiticus) grow on stored vegetation and compost contributing to their decay while releasing toxin. Since both mesophilic and thermophilic fungi grow on these substrates their spores would be exposed to fungal toxins and spore germination could be affected. A few studies have been done on the effects of fungal toxins on the germination of spores from mesophilic fungi (Brian and Hemming, 1945; Reiss, 1973; Deshmukh and Agrawal, 1984), and only one report (Thakre and Johri, 1973) was found dealing with the effects of fungal toxins on the germination of spores from thermophilic fungi. Furthermore, several studies have been done concerning the effects of fungal toxins on the germination of tracheophyte spores, pollen, and seeds (Reynolds et al., 1978; Jones et al., 1980; Dashek et al., 1981a; Dashek et al., 1981b; Dashek et al., 1982; Llewellyn et al., 1982; Llewellyn et al., 1985) to determine the effects of toxins on the germination of these structures or to use their germination in toxin solutions as a bioassay for toxin.
KeywordsPercent Germination Spore Germination Germ Tube Thermophilic Fungus Penicillic Acid
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Adams, P.R. (1981). Amylase production by Mucor pusillus and Humicola lanuginosa as related to mycelial growth. Mycopathologia 76, 97–101.Google Scholar
- Dashek, W.V., Harman, R.L., Adlestein, L.B., Morton, W.A., Rapisarda, B.M., Chancey, J.C., and Llewellyn, G.C. (1981b). Use of Lilium longiflorum cv. ace pollen germination and tube elongation as a bioassay for the hepatocarcinogens, aflatoxins, Environ. Hth. Perspect., 40, 267–278.Google Scholar
- Dashek, W.V., Boggs, B.W., Gamber, R.B., Hrycyk, M., Schell, S.L., and Llewellyn, G.C. (1982). Evaluating the potency of the mycotoxin aflatoxin G, by lily pollen germination and tube elongation bioassays. Dev. Ind. Microbiol., 23, 273–278.Google Scholar
- Deploey, J.J. (1985). The influence of atmosphere composition and nutrients on the germination of Rhizomucor pusillus sporangiospores. Mycologia, 77, 97–102.Google Scholar
- Deshmukh, S.K. and Agrawal, S.C. (1984). Volatile metabolites of aspergilli in relation to spore germination of some keratinophilic fungi. Experientia, 40, 583–584.Google Scholar
- Jones, H.C., Chancey, J.C., Morton, W.A., Dashek, W.V., and Llewellyn, G.C. (1980). Toxic responses of germinating pollen and soybeans to aflatoxins. Mvcopathologia, 72, 67–73.Google Scholar
- Llewellyn, G.C., Reynolds, J.D., and Dashek, W.V. (1985). Water fern (Marsilea quadrifolia) reproduction as a bioassay for aflatoxin B1 and T-2 trichothecene toxin. Proceedings for Sexual Reproduction In Plants. The Netherlands, 8, 127–130.Google Scholar
- Reiss, J. (1973). Influence of the mycotoxins patulin and diacetoxyscirpenol on fungi. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 19, 415–420.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, J.D., Cahill, S.G., and Llewellyn, G.C. (1978). Reduced fern spore germination associated with aflatoxin B, treatment. Incompat. Newsletter, 9, 60–65.Google Scholar
- Thakre, R.P. and Johri, B.N. (1973). Influence of antibiotics on the swelling phase and spore germination of thermophilic fungi. Hindustan Antibiotics Bull., 16, 109–114.Google Scholar
- Wadia, K.D.R., Manoharachary, C., and Prakash, P. (1986). Effect of fungal metabolites on some pathogenic fungi. Indian J. Bot. 9, 180–182.Google Scholar