Advertisement

Metabolism of Zinc

  • Ananda S. Prasad
Part of the Biochemistry of the Elements book series (BOTE, volume 11)

Abstract

The primary dietary sources of zinc are red meats, seafood, and cereals (Welsh and Marston, 1983). The zinc content of raw vegetables, legumes, cereals, and even meat is not retained after cooking and the availability of zinc in various foods may be adversely affected by ligands such as phytate. Because of the above, it is difficult to estimate the actual absorbed amounts of zinc solely on the basis of zinc as calculated from food tables.

Keywords

Zinc Absorption Zinc Deficiency Zinc Content Zinc Intake Dietary Zinc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abu-Hamdan, D. K., Migdal, S. D., Whitehouse, R., Rabbani, P., Prasad, A. S., and McDonald, F. D., 1981. Renal handling of zinc: Effect of cysteine infusion, Am. J. Physiol. 241: F487.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Hamdan, D. K., Mahajan, S. K., Migdal, S. D., Prasad, A. S., and McDonald, F. D., 1984. Zinc absorption in uremia: Effects of phosphate binders and iron supplements, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 3: 283.Google Scholar
  3. Abu-Hamdan, D. K., Mahajan, S. K., Migdal, S. D., Prasad, A. S., and McDonald, F. D., 1986. Zinc tolerance test in uremia. Effect of ferrous sulfate and aluminum hydroxide, Ann. Intern. Med. 204: 50.Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal, R. P., and Henkin, R. I., 1982. Zinc and copper in human cerebrospinal fluid, Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 4: 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, B. M., Gibson, R. S., and Sabry, J. H., 1981. The iron and zinc status of long-term vegetarian women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:1042.Google Scholar
  6. Antonson, D. L., and Vanderhoff, A., 1983. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on zinc absorption in rat small intestine, Dig. Dis. Sci. 28: 604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Casey, C. E., Walravens, P. A., and Hambidge, K. M., 1981. Availability of zinc in loading tests with human milk, cow’s milk and infant formulae, Pediatrics 68: 394.Google Scholar
  8. Cash, R., and Berger, C. K., 1969. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: Defective metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, J. Pediatr. 74: 717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coble, Y. D., Schulert, A. R., and Farid, Z., 1966. Growth and sexual development of male subjects in an Egyptian oasis, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 18: 421.Google Scholar
  10. Coppen, D. E., and Davies, N. T., 1987. Studies on the effect of dietary zinc dose on zinc65 absorption in vivo and the effects of zinc status on zinc65 absorption and body loss in young rats, Br. J. Nutr. 57: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cunnane, S. C., 1982. Maternal essential fatty acid supplementation enhances zinc absorption in neonatal rats: Relevance to the defect in zinc in acrodermatitis enteropathica, Pediatr. Res. 16: 599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunnane, S. C., 1988. Zinc: Clinical and Biochemical Significance, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. p. 69.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, J. W. L., and Fell, G. S., 1974. Tissue catabolism in patients with burns, Clin. Chim. Acta 51: 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Davies, N. T., 1980. Studies on the absorption of zinc by rat intestine, Br. J. Nutr. 43: 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dinsmore, W. W., Callender, M. E., McMaster, D., and Love, A. H. G., 1985. The absorption of zinc from a standardized meal in alcoholics and in normal volunteers, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 688.Google Scholar
  16. Eckhert, C. D., 1985. Isolation of a protein from human milk that enhances zinc absorption in humans, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 130: 264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eckhert, C. D., Sloan, M. V., Duncan, J. R., and Hurley, L. S., 1977. Zinc binding: A difference between human and bovine milk, Science 195: 789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Engel, R. W., Miller, R. E., and Price, N. O., 1966. Metabolic patterns in preadolescent children. XIII. Zinc balance, in Zinc Metabolism ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Thomas, Springfield, Ill., p. 326.Google Scholar
  19. Evans, G. W., and Johnson, E. C., 1980. Zinc concentration of liver and kidneys from rat pups nursing dams fed supplemental zinc dipicolinate or zinc acetate, J. Nutr. 110: 2121.Google Scholar
  20. Evans, G. W., Grace, C. I., and Votava, H. J., 1975. A proposed mechanism for zinc absorption in the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 228: 501.Google Scholar
  21. Failla, M. L., and Cousins, R. J., 1975. Zinc accumulation and metabolism in primary cultures of adult rat liver cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 543: 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feeley, R. M., Eitenmiller, R. R., Jones, J. B., and Barnhart, H., 1983. Copper, iron and zinc contents of human milk at early stages of lactation, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37: 443.Google Scholar
  23. Fell, G. S., Fleck, A., Cuthbertson, D. P., Queen, K., Morrison, C., Bessent, R. G., and Husain, S. L., 1973. Urinary zinc level as an indication of muscle catabolism, Lancet 1: 290.Google Scholar
  24. Flanagan, P. R., Haist, J., and Valberg, L. S., 1983. Zinc absorption, intraluminal zinc and intestinal metallothionein in zinc deficient and zinc replete rodents, J. Nutr. 113: 962.Google Scholar
  25. Foley, B., Johnson, S. A., Hackley, B., Smith, J. C., Jr., and Halsted, J. A., 1968. Zinc content of human platelets, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128: 265.Google Scholar
  26. Fransson, G. B., and Lonnerdal, B., 1983. Distribution of trace elements and minerals in human cow’s milk, J. Pediatr. 17: 912.Google Scholar
  27. Gormican, A., and Catli, E., 1971. Mineral balance in young men fed a fortified milk-base formula, Nutr. Metab. 13: 364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greger, J. L., 1977. Dietary intake and nutritional status in regard to zinc of institutionalized aged, J. Gerontol. 32: 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guigliano, R., and Millward, D. J., 1984. Growth and zinc homeostasis in the severely zinc deficient rat, Br. J. Nutr. 52: 545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hallbook, T., and Hedelin, H., 1977. Zinc metabolism and surgical trauma, Br. J. Surg. 64: 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hambidge, K. M., Walravens, P. A., White, S., Anthony, M. L., and Roth, M. L., 1976. Zinc nutrition of preschool children in the Denver Head Start Program, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 734.Google Scholar
  32. Hambidge, K. M., Krebs, N. F., Jacobs, M. A., Favier, A., Guyette, L., and Ikle, D. N., 1983. Zinc nutritional status during pregnancy: A longitudinal study, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37: 429.Google Scholar
  33. Hill, G. M., Brewer, G. J., Prasad, A. S., Hydrick, C. R., and Hartmann, D. E., 1987. Treatment of Wilson’s disease with zinc. I. Oral zinc therapy regimens, Hepatology 7: 522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Horrobin, D. F., and Morgan, R. D., 1980. Myotonic dystrophy: A disease caused by functional zinc deficiency due to an abnormal zinc-binding ligand, Med. Hypoth. 6: 375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hurley, L. S., and Lonnerdal, B., 1982. Zinc binding in human milk: Citrate versus picolinate, Nutr. Rev. 40: 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jackson, M. J., Jones, D. A., and Edwards, R. H. T., 1982. Tissue zinc level as an index of body zinc status, Clin. Physiol. 2: 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jameson, S., 1976. Effects of zinc deficiency in human reproduction, Acta Med. Scand. 197: 3.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, W. T., and Evans, G. W., 1982. Tissue uptake of zinc in rats following the administration of zinc dipicolinate or zinc histidinate, J. Nutr. 112: 914.Google Scholar
  39. King, J. C., Stein, T., and Doyle, M., 1981. Effect of vegetarianism on the zinc status of pregnant women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 1049.Google Scholar
  40. Latta, D., and Liebman, M., 1984. Iron and zinc status of vegetarian and non-vegetarian males, Nutr. Rep. Int. 30: 141.Google Scholar
  41. Lee, H. H., Prasad, A. S., Brewer, G. J., and Owyang, C., 1989. Zinc absorption in human small intestine, Am. J. Physiol. 256: G87.Google Scholar
  42. Lee, H. H., Hill, G. M., Sikha, V. K. N. M., Brewer, G. J., Prasad, A. S., and Owyang, C., 1990. Pancreaticobiliary secretion of zinc and copper in normal persons and patients with Wilson’s disease, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 116: 283.Google Scholar
  43. Lindeman, R. D., Bottomley, R. G., Cornelison, R. L., and Jacobs, L. A., 1972. Influence of acute tissue injury on zinc metabolism in man, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 79: 452.Google Scholar
  44. McCance, R. A., and Widdowson, E. M., 1942. The absorption and excretion of zinc, Biochem. J. 36: 692.Google Scholar
  45. Mansouri, K., Halsted, J., and Gombos, E., 1970. Zinc, copper, magnesium and calcium in dialyzed and non dialyzed uremic patients, Arch. Intern. Med. 125: 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Masters, D. G., Keen, C. L., Lonnerdal, B., and Hurley, L. S., 1986. Release of zinc from maternal tissues during zinc deficiency or simultaneous zinc and calcium deficiency in the pregnant rat, J. Nutr. 116: 2148.Google Scholar
  47. Mateseche, J. W., Phillips, S. F., Malagelada, J. R., and McCall, J. T., 1980. Recovery of dietary iron and zinc from the proximal intestine of healthy man. Studies of different meals and supplements, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 1946.Google Scholar
  48. Meadows, N. J., Grainger, S. L., Ruse, W., Keeling, P. W. N., and Thompson, R. P. H., 1983. Oral iron and the bioavailability of zinc, Br. Med. J. 287: 1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meftah, S., and Prasad, A. S., 1989. Nucleotides in lymphocytes of human subjects with zinc deficiency, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 114: 114.Google Scholar
  50. Menard, M. P., and Cousins, R. J., 1983. Zinc transport by brush border membrane vesicles for rat intestine, J. Nutr. 113: 1434.Google Scholar
  51. Moore, M. E. C., Moran, J. R., and Greene, H. L., 1984. Zinc supplementation in lactating women-Evidence for mammary control of zinc secretion, J. Pediatr. 105: 660.Google Scholar
  52. Pattison, S. E., and Cousins, R. J., 1986a. Zinc uptake and metabolism by hepatocytes, Fed. Proc. 45: 2805.Google Scholar
  53. Pattison, S. E., and Cousins, R. J., 1986b. Kinetics of zinc uptake and exchange by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, Am. J. Physiol. 250: E677.Google Scholar
  54. Phillips, J. L., 1978. Uptake of transfemn-bound zinc by human lymphocytes, Cell. Immunol. 35: 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prasad, A. S., 1966. Metabolism of zinc and its deficiency in human subjects, in Zinc Metabolism ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Thomas, Springfield, Ill. p. 250.Google Scholar
  56. Prasad, A. S., 1976. Zinc, in Trace Elements and Iron in Human Metabolism ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, p. 251.Google Scholar
  57. Prasad, A. S., 1988. Clinical spectrum and diagnostic aspects of human zinc deficiency, in Essential and Toxic Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease ( A. S. Prasad, ed), Liss, New York, p. 3.Google Scholar
  58. Prasad, A. S., and Oberleas, D., 1970. Binding of zinc to amino acids and serum proteins in vitro, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 76: 416.Google Scholar
  59. Prasad, A. S., Halsted, J. A., and Nadimi, M., 1961. Syndrome of iron deficiency, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, hypogonadism and geophagia, Am. J. Med. 31: 532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Prasad, A. S., Miale, A., Jr., Farid, Z., Sandstead, H. H., and Schulert, A. R., I963a. Zinc metabolism in patients with syndrome of iron deficiency anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, dwarfism, and hypogonadism, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 61: 537.Google Scholar
  61. Prasad, A. S., Schulert, A. R., Miale, A. J., Farid, Z., and Sandstead, H. H., 1963b. Zinc and iron deficiencies in male subjects with dwarfism but without ancylostomiasis, schistosomiasis, or severe anemia, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 12: 437.Google Scholar
  62. Prasad, A. S., Schulert, A. R., Sandstead, H. H., Miale, A., and Farid, Z., 1963c. Zinc, iron, and nitrogen content of sweat in normal and deficient subjects, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 62: 84.Google Scholar
  63. Prasad, A. S., Rabbani, P., Abbasi, A., Bowersox, E., and Spivey-Fox, M. R. S., 1977. Experimental zinc deficiency in humans, Ann. Intern. Med. 89: 483.Google Scholar
  64. Prasad, A S, Meftah, S., Abdallah, J., Kaplan, J., Brewer, G. J., Bach, J. F., and Dardenne, M., 1988. Serum thymulin human zinc deficiency, J. Clin. Invest. 82: 1202.Google Scholar
  65. Price, N. O., Bunce, G. E., and Engel, R. W., 1970. Copper, manganese and zinc balance in preadolescent girls, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 258.Google Scholar
  66. Richards, M. P., and Cousins, R. J., 1976. Zinc-binding protein: Relationship to short term changes in zinc metabolism, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 153: 52.Google Scholar
  67. Ronaghy, H. A., Reinhold, J. G., Mahloudji, M., Ghavami, P., Fox, M. R. S., and Halsted, J. A., 1974. Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: Increased growth and other effects, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 112.Google Scholar
  68. Rose, G. A., and Willden, E. G., 1972. Whole blood, red cell, and plasma total and ultrafilterable zinc levels in normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure with and without hemodialysis, Br. J. Urol. 44: 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sandstead, H. H., 1973a. Zinc nutrition in the United States, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 26: 1251.Google Scholar
  70. Sandstead, H. H., 1973b. Zinc nutrition in the United States, Am. Med. Assoc. 240: 2188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sandstead, H. H., 1982. Availability of zinc and its requirement in human subjects, in Clinical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Liss, New York, p. 83.Google Scholar
  72. Sandstrom, B. M., Davidson, L., and Cederblad, A., 1985. Oral, iron, dietary ligands and zinc absorption, J. Nutr. 115: 411.Google Scholar
  73. Schoenfeld, C., Amelar, R. D., Dubin, L., and Numeroff, M., 1979. Prolactin, fructose and zinc levels found in human seminal plasma, Fertil. Steril. 32: 206.Google Scholar
  74. Schroeder, H. A., Nason, A. P., Tipton, I. H., and Balassa, J. J., 1967. Essential trace metals in man. Zinc: Relation to environmental cadmium, J. Chronic Dis. 20: 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Scoular, F. L., 1939. A quantitative study, by means of spectrographic analysis of zinc in nutrition, J. Nutr. 17: 103.Google Scholar
  76. Silverman, B., Kwaitkowski, D., Pinto, J., and Rivlin, R., 1979. Disturbances in zinc binding to jejunal proteins induced by ethanol ingestion in rats, Clin. Res. 27: 555A.Google Scholar
  77. Solomons, N. W., and Jacob, R. A., 1981. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man. IV. Effect of heme and non-heme iron on the absorption of zinc, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 475.Google Scholar
  78. Solomons, N. W., Jacob, R. A., Pineda, O., and Viteri, F. E., 1979. Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in man. II. Absorption of zinc from organic and inorganic sources, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94: 335.Google Scholar
  79. Song, M. K., and Adham, N. F., 1985. Relationship between zinc and prostaglandin metabolism in plasma and small intestine of rats, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 1201.Google Scholar
  80. Spencer, H., Rosoff, B., Feldstein, A., Cohn, S. H., and Gusmano, E., 1965a. Metabolism of zinc65 in man, Radiat. Res. 24: 432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Spencer, H., Vankinscott, V., Lewin, I., and Samachson, J., 1965b. Zinc65 metabolism during low and high calcium intake in man, J. Nutr. 86: 169.Google Scholar
  82. Spencer, H., Rosoff, B., Lewin, I., and Samachson, J., 1966. Studies of zinc65 metabolism in man, in Zinc Metabolism ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Thomas, Springfield, III., p. 339.Google Scholar
  83. Spencer, H., Osis, D., Kramer, L., and Norris, C., 1976. Intake, excretion and retention of zinc in man, in Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease ( A. S. Prasad, ed.), Academic Press, New York, p. 345.Google Scholar
  84. Stacey, N. H., and Klassen, C. D., 1981. Zinc uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 640: 693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Strain, W. H., Macon, W. L., Pories, W. J., Perim, C., Adams, F. D., and Hill, O. A., 1974. Excretion of trace elements in bile, in Trace Element Metabolism in Animals, Volume 2 ( W. H. Hoekstra, J. W. Suttie, H. E. Ganther, and W. Mertz, eds.), University Park Press, Baltimore, p. 644.Google Scholar
  86. Sullivan, J. F., Jetton, M. M., and Burch, R. E., 1979a. A zinc tolerance test, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 93: 485.Google Scholar
  87. Sullivan, J. F., Williams, R. V., and Burch, R. E., 1979b. Metabolism of zinc and selenium in cirrhotic patients during 6 weeks of zinc ingestion, Alcoholism 3: 235.Google Scholar
  88. Swanson, C. A., Turnlund, J. R., and King, J. C., 1983. Effect of dietary sources and pregnancy on zinc utilization in adult women fed controlled diets, J. Nutr. 113: 2557.Google Scholar
  89. Tipton, I. H., Stewart, P. L., and Dickson, J., 1969. Patterns of elemental excretion in long term balance studies, Health Phys. 16: 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tribble, H. M., and Scoular, F. I., 1954. Zinc metabolism of young college women on self-selected diets, J. Nutr. 52: 209.Google Scholar
  91. Valberg, L. S., Flanagan, P. R., Brennan, J., and Chamberlain, M. J., 1985. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption ? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 37.Google Scholar
  92. Wada, L., Turnlund, J. R., and King, J. C., 1985. Zinc utilization in young men fed adequate and low zinc intakes, J. Nutr. 115: 1345.Google Scholar
  93. Wang, H., Prasad, A S, and DuMouchelle, E. A., 1989. Zinc in platelets, lymphocytes, and granulocytes by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, J. Micronutr. Anal. 5: 181.Google Scholar
  94. Wapnir, R. A., Khani, D. E., Bayne, M. A., and Lifshitz, F., 1983. Absorption of zinc by the rat ileum: Effects of histidine and other low-molecular ligands, J. Nutr. 113: 1346.Google Scholar
  95. Welsh, S. O., and Marston, R. M., 1983. Trends in levels of zinc in the U.S. food supply, 1909–1981, in Bioavailability of Zinc, ACS Symp. Ser. 210 ( G. E. Inglett, ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., p. 15.Google Scholar
  96. White, H. S., and Gynee, T. M., 1971. Utilization of inorganic elements by young men eating iron-fortified foods, J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 59: 27.Google Scholar
  97. Whitehouse, R. C., Prasad, A. S., Rabbani, P. I., and Cossack, Z. T., 1982. Zinc in plasma, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes as determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Clin. Chem. 28. Washington, D.C., 475.Google Scholar
  98. Wilden, E. G., and Robinson, M. R. G., 1975. Plasma zinc levels in prostatic disease, Br. J. Urol. 47: 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yadav, H. S., Nagpal, K. K., Sharma, B. N., and Chaundhuri, B. N., 1980. Influence of thyroxine and temperature on zinc metabolism, Indian J. Exp. Biol. 18: 993.Google Scholar
  100. Yip, R., Reeves, J. D., Lonnerdal, B., Keen, C. L., and Dallman, P. R., 1985. Does iron supplementation compromise zinc nutrition in healthy infants? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42: 683.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ananda S. Prasad
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and OncologyWayne State University School of MedicineUSA
  2. 2.Harper HospitalDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Veterans Administration Medical CenterAllen ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations