Synthesis of messenger RNA by transcription of the genetic information contained in DNA constitutes the first stage of protein biosynthesis. In the second stage (translation), mRNA serves as the template that directs amino acid polymerization. The term transcription is well chosen: a sequence of deoxyribonucleotides in DNA becomes transcribed into a sequence of ribonucleotides in RNA. Transcription retains the genetic information in the form of nucleotide sequences but alters the type of nucleotide. In addition to generating mRNAs, transcription produces ribosomal, transfer, and small RNAs. The basic mechanism of transcription is similar in all cells and requires catalysis by RNA polymerase (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase).
KeywordsEnzyme Induction Catabolite Repression Core Enzyme Catabolite Activator Protein Sigma Subunit
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