Some New Dimensions of Behaviour Analysis and Therapy

  • Dennis C. Russo
  • Carryl P. Navalta


Clinical approaches based on the principles of behaviour modification and behaviour therapy have evolved into an experimental literature that demonstrates the benefit and efficacy of these approaches in mental illness, mental retardation, autism, and special education. Significant advantages of these learning-based therapies have reduced reliance on traditional psychodynamic models. Indeed, over the past 30 years, behavioural services have not only become a cornerstone of clinical psychology but have led to the development of new models of care for a host of other disorders and problems. This paper summarizes the historical perspectives and new directions in the field of behaviour analysis and therapy. Focusing on applications to paediatric medicine, we will trace the development of behavioural applications in this field and explore new extensions of the behavioural paradigm. By way of review of one of the newest areas of endeavour for behavioural medicine, traumatic brain injuries, we suggest future directions for the growth of behavioural approaches.


Traumatic Brain Injury Brain Injury Head Injury Behavior Analysis Participatory Action Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abel, G.L. (1984). Prenatal effects of alcohol. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 14, 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K.D., Barone, V.J. and Kuhn, B.R. (1993). A behavioral prescription for promoting applied behavior analysis within pediatrics. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 493–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ammerman, R.T. (1990). Etiological models of child maltreatment: A behavioral perspective. Behavior Modification, 14, 230–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, S.R. (1989). Training parents of autistic children. In: B.L. Baker (Ed.), Parent training and developmental disabilities. Monograph of the American Association on Mental Deficiency, No. 13.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, S.R., Avery D.L., DiPietro E.K., Edwards G.L. and Christian, W.P. (1987). Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 352–366.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, S.R., Christian, W.P. and Luce, S.C. (1986). Transitional residential programming for autistic individuals. The Behavior Therapist, 9, 205–211.Google Scholar
  7. Asarnow, R.F., Satz, P., Light, R., Lewis, R. and Neumann, E. (1991). Behavior problems and adaptive functioning in children with mild and severe closed head injury. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 16, 543–555.Google Scholar
  8. Autti-Ramo, I. and Granstrom, M.L. (1991). The psychomotor development during the first year of life of infants exposed to intrauterine alcohol of various duration. Neuropediatrics, 22, 59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aylward, G.P. (1992). The relationship between environmental risk and developmental outcome. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 222–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Azrin, N.H., and Peterson, A.L. (1990). Treatment of Tourette Syndrome by habit reversal: A waiting-list control group comparison. Behavior Therapy, 21, 305–318.Google Scholar
  11. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1989). Traumatic Brain Injury. New York: Demo Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Baer, D.M. (1986). Advances and gaps in a behavioral methodology of paediatric medicine. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J.D. Arasteh and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior (pp. 54–69), New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  13. Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M. and Risley, T.R. (1986). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97.Google Scholar
  14. Bagnato, S. and Feldman, D. (1989). Closed head injury in infants and preschool children: Research and practice issues. Infants and Young Children, 2, 1–13.Google Scholar
  15. Barlow, D.H., Hayes, S.C. and Nelson, R.O. (1984). The scientist practitioner: Research and accountability in clinical and educational settings. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  16. Banish, H.H., Saunders, M. and Wolf, M.M. (1969). Good Behavior Game: Effects of individual contingencies for group consequences on disruptive behavior in a classroom, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 119–124.Google Scholar
  17. Barry, P. and Clark, D. (1992). Effects of intact versus non-intact families on adolescent head injury rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 6, 229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Beers, S.R. (1992). Cognitive effects of mild head injury in children and adolescents. Neuropsychology Review, 3, 281–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bigler, E.D. (1990). Traumatic brain injury: Mechanisms of damage, assessment, intervention, and outcome. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  20. Bijou, S.W. and Baer, D.M. (1978). Behavior analysis of child development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  21. Blosser, J.L. and DePompei, R. (1991). Preparing educational professionals for meeting the needs of students with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 6, 73–82.Google Scholar
  22. Blount, R.L., Bachanas, P.J., Powers, S.W. and Cotter, M.C. (1992). Training children to cope and parents to coach them during routine immunizations: Effects on child, parent, and staff behaviours. Behavior Therapy, 23, 689–705.Google Scholar
  23. Blount, R.L., Powers, S.W., Cotter, M.W. and Swan, S. (1994). Making the system work: Training paediatric oncology patients to cope and their parents to coach them during BMA/LP procedures. Behavior Modification, 18, 6–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Blount, R.L., Sturges, J.W. and Powers, S.W. (1990). Analysis of child and adult behavioral variations by phase of medical procedure. Behavior Therapy, 21, 33–48.Google Scholar
  25. Boon, F.F. and Singh, N.N. (1991). A model for the treatment of encopresis. Behavior Modification, 15, 355–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Boyer, M.G. and Edwards, P. (1991). Outcome 1 to 3 years after severe traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Injury, 22, 315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brady, J.V. (1986). A behavioral perspective on child health. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J. D. Arasteh and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior (pp. 31–53), New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, G., Chadwick, O., Shaffer, D., Rutter, M. and Traub, M. (1981). A prospective study of children with head injuries: III. Psychiatric sequelae. Psychological Medicine, 11, 63–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Burke, P. (1991). Depression in paediatric illness. Behavior Modification, 15, 486–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burkett, G., Yasin, S. and Palow, D. (1990). Perinatal implications of cocaine exposure. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 35, 35–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carney, J. and Gerring, J. (1990). Return to school following severe closed head injury: A critical phase in paediatric rehabilitation. Paediatrician, 17, 222–229.Google Scholar
  32. Cataldo, M.F. (1986). Research strategies and future directions in behavioral pediatrics. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J.D. Arasteh and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior (pp. 559–574). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  33. Cataldo, M.F., Finney, J.W., Madden, N.A. and Russo, D.C. (1982). Behavioral approaches to lead ingestion. In: J.J. Chisolm and D. O’Hara (Eds.), Lead absorption in children: Management, clinical, and environ mental aspects (103–112). Baltimore: Urban and Schwartzenburg.Google Scholar
  34. Cataldo, M.F., Russo, D.C. and Freeman, J.M. (1980). Behavior modification of a 4 1/2 year old child with myoclonic and grand mal seizures. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 413–427.Google Scholar
  35. Chang, P.N. (1991). Psychosocial needs of long-term childhood cancer survivors: A review of literature. Paediatrician, 18, 20–24.Google Scholar
  36. Chaplin, D., Deitz, J. and Jaffe, K.M. (1993). Motor performance in children after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 161–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chasnoff, I.J. (1991). Cocaine and pregnancy: Clinical and methodologic issues. Clinical Perinatology, 18, 113–123.Google Scholar
  38. Christian, W.P., Hannah, G.T. and Glahn, T.J. (1984). Programming effective human services: Strategies for institutional change and client transition. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Church, P., Forehand, R., Brown, C. and Holmes, T. (1990). Prevention of drug abuse: Examination of the effectiveness of a program with elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 21, 339–347.Google Scholar
  40. Cockrell, J.L. and Gregory, S. A. (1992). Audiological deficits in brain-injured children and adolescents. Brain Injury, 6, 261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen, S.B. (1986). Educational reintegration and programming for children with head injuries. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 1, 22–29.Google Scholar
  42. Cone, J.D. (1991). Child sexual abuse assessment: Contributions from behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 241–243.Google Scholar
  43. Cooley, E. and Singer, G. (1991). On serving students with head injuries: Are we reinventing a wheel that doesn’t roll? Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 6, 47–55.Google Scholar
  44. Craighead, W.E. (1990). There’s a place for us: All of us. Behavior Therapy, 21, 3–23.Google Scholar
  45. Creer, T.L., Stein, R.E., Rappaport, L. and Lewis, C. (1992). Behavioral consequences of illness: Childhood asthma as a model. Pediatrics, 90, 808–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Czyrko, C, Del Pin, CA., O’Neill, A.A. Jr., Peckham, G.J. and Ross, A.J. 3rd, (1991). Maternal cocaine abuse and necrotizing enterocolitis: Outcome and survival. Journal of Paediatric Surgery, 26, 414–418.Google Scholar
  47. Dalby, P.R. and Obrzut, J.E. (1991). Epidemiologic characteristics and sequelae of closed head injured children and adolescents. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 35–68.Google Scholar
  48. Davidson, C.V. (1988). Training the paediatric psychologist and the developmental-behavioral paediatrician. In: D.K. Routh (Ed.), Handbook of paediatric psychology (pp. 507–537). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Deaton, A.V. (1987). Behavioral change strategies for children and adolescents with severe brain injury. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Luca, R.V., and Holborn, S.W. (1992). Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and nonobese boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 671–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. DePompei, R. and Blosser, J. L. (1987). Strategies for helping head-injured children successfully return to school. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 18, 292–300.Google Scholar
  52. Derrickson, J.G., Neef, N.A. and Parrish, J.M. (1991). Teaching self-administration of sanctioning to children with tracheostomies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 563–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dew, M.A., Penkower, L. and Bromet, E.J. (1991). Effects of unemployment on mental health in the contemporary family. Behavior Modification, 15, 501–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dominguez, R., Villa-Coro, A.A., Slopis, J.M. and Bohan, T.P. (1991). Brain and ocular abnormalities in infants with in utero exposure to cocaine and other street drugs. American Journal of Diseases in Children, 145, 688–695.Google Scholar
  55. Donders, J. (1993). Memory functioning after traumatic brain injury in children. Brain Injury, 7, 431–437.Google Scholar
  56. Drotar, D. (1993). Influences on collaborative activities among psychologists and paediatricians: Implications for practice, training, and research. Journal ofPaediatric Psychology, 18, 159–172.Google Scholar
  57. Durand, V.M. and Mindell, J. A. (1990). Behavioral treatment of multiple childhood sleep disorders: Effects on child and family. Behavior Modification, 14, 37–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Edwards, M.C., Finney, J.W. and Bonner, M. (1991). Matching treatment with recurrent abdominal pain symptoms: An evaluation of dietary fiber and relaxation treatments. Behavior Therapy, 22, 257–267.Google Scholar
  59. Engel, G.L. (1977). The care of the patient: Art or science? The Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 140, 222–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Evans, D. and Mellins, R.B. (1991). Educational programs for children with asthma. Paediatrician, 18, 317–323.Google Scholar
  61. Ewing-Cobbs, L., Fletcher, J.M. and Levin, H.S. (1986). Neurobehavioral sequelae following head injury in children: Educational implications. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 1, 57–65.Google Scholar
  62. Ewing-Cobbs, L. and Miner M. E. (1989). Intellectual, motor, and language sequelae following closed head injury in infants and preschoolers. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 14, 531–547.Google Scholar
  63. Fantuzzo, J.W. (1990). Behavioral treatment of the victims of child abuse and neglect. Behavior Modification, 74, 316–339.Google Scholar
  64. Fenton, J., Batavia, A. and Roody, D. (1993, November). Constituency-oriented research and dissemination (CORD): Proposed policy statement for the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.Google Scholar
  65. Ferrari, M. (1990). Developmental issues in behavioral pediatrics. In: A.M. Gross and R.S. Drabman (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavioral pediatrics. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  66. Finney, J.W., Miller, K.M. and Adler, S.P. ((1993). Changing protective and risky behaviours to prevent child-to-parent transmission of cytomegalovirus. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 471–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Finney, J.W. and Weist, M.D. (1992). Behavioral assessment of children and adolescents. Paediatric Clinics of North America, 39, 369–378.Google Scholar
  68. Fletcher, J.M., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Miner, M.E. and Levin, H.S. (1990). Behavioral changes after closed head injury in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fletcher, J.M. and Levin, H.S. (1988). Neurobehavioral effects of brain injury in children. In: D.K. Routh (Ed.), Handbook of paediatric psychology (pp. 258–296). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. France, K.G. and Hudson, S.M. (1990). Behavior management of infant sleep disturbance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gagnon, M., Ladouceur, R. (1992). Behavioral treatment of child stutterers: Replication and extension. Behavior Therapy, 23, 113–129.Google Scholar
  72. Glang, A., Singer, G., Cooley, E. and Tish, N. (1992). Tailoring direct instruction techniques for use with elementary students with brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 7, 93–108.Google Scholar
  73. Goldstein, F.C. and Levin, H.S. (1985). Intellectual and academic outcome following closed head injury in children and adolescents: Research strategies and empirical findings. Developmental Neuropsychology, 1, 195–214.Google Scholar
  74. Graves, W.H. (1991, May). Participatory action research: A new paradigm for disability and rehabilitation research. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of National Association of Rehabilitation Research and Training Centres, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  75. Greer, R.D., Dorow, L., Williams, G. and McCorckle, N. (1991). Peer-mediated procedures to induce swallowing and food acceptance in young children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 783–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gross, A.M. and Drabman, R.S. (1990). Clinical behavioral pediatrics: An introduction. In: A.M. Gross and R.S. Drabman (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavioral pediatrics. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  77. Grossman, D.C. and Rivara, F.P. (1992). Injury control in childhood. Paediatric Clinics of North America, 39, 471–485.Google Scholar
  78. Hagopian, L.P., Fisher, W., Piazza, C.C. and Wierbicki, J.J. (1993). A water-prompting procedure for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 473–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Haley, S.M., Baryza, M.J., Lewin, J.E. and Cioffi, M.I. (1991). Sensorimotor dysfunction in children with brain injury: Development of a data base for evaluation research. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 11, 1–26.Google Scholar
  80. Haley, S.M., Hallenborg, S.C. and Gans, B.M. (1989). Functional assessment in young children with neurological impairment. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 9, 106–126.Google Scholar
  81. Harbeck, C, Peterson, L. and Starr, L. (1992). Previously abused child victims’ response to a sexual abuse prevention program: A matter of measures. Behavior Therapy, 23, 375–387.Google Scholar
  82. Hart, K.J. and Faust, D. (1988). Prediction of the effects of mild head injury: A message about the Kennard Principle. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 780–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hartman, S. (1987). Patterns of change in families following severe head injuries in children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 8, 125–130.Google Scholar
  84. Hoch, T.A., Babbitt, R.L., Coe, D.A. and Krell, D.M. (1994). Contingency contacting: Combining positive reinforcement and escape extinction procedures to treat persistent food refusal. Behavior Modification, 18, 106–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Horowitz, F.D. and O’Brien, M. (1986). Developmental determinants and child health behavior: Research priorities. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J.D. Arasteh, and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior (pp. 129–145), New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  86. Houts, A.C. (1991). Nocturnal enuresis as a biobehavioral problem. Behavior Therapy, 22, 133–151.Google Scholar
  87. Irwin, CE. Jr., Cataldo, M.F., Matheny, A.P. Jr. and Peterson, L. Health consequences of behaviours: Injury as a model. Pediatrics, 90, 798–807.Google Scholar
  88. Isaacson, R.L. (1975). The myth of recovery from early brain damage. In: N. Ellis (Ed.), Aberrant development in infancy. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Jaffe, K.M., Fay, G.C., Polissar, N.L., Martin, K.M., Shurtleff, H.A., Rivara, J.B. and Winn, H.R. (1992). Severity of paediatric traumatic brain injury and early neurobehavioral outcome: A cohort study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jaffe, K.M., Fay, G.C., Polissar, NX., Martin, K.M., Shurtleff, H.A., Rivara, J.B. and Winn, H.R. (1993). Severity of traumatic brain injury and neurobehavioral recovery at one year: A cohort study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 587–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Johnson, C.R. and Babbitt, R.L. (1993). Antecedent manipulation in the treatment of primary solid food refusal. Behavior Modification, 17, 510–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Johnson, H.L., Glassman, M.B., Fiks, K.B. and Rosen, T.S. (1990). Resilient children: Individual differences in developmental outcome of children born to drug abusers. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 151,523–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kaufmann, P.M., Fletcher, J.M., Levin, H.S. and Miner, M. (1993). Attentional disturbance after paediatric closed head injury. Journal of Child Neurology, 8, 348–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kazdin, A.E. (1977). The history of behavior modification: Experimental foundations of contemporary research. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  95. Klein, S.D. (1992, May). The challenge of communicating with parents. Paper presented at “Creating family-pro fessional partnerships: Educating physicians and other health professionals to care for children with chronic and disabling conditions”, Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  96. Koegel, R.L., Russo, D.C. and Rincover, A. (1977). Assessing and training teacher use of behavior modification procedures with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 197–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kolko, D.J., Watson, S. and Faust, J. (1991). Fire safety/prevention skills training to reduce involvement with fire in young psychiatric inpatients: Preliminary findings. Behavior Therapy, 22, 269–284.Google Scholar
  98. Krauss, J.F., Fife, D. and Conroy, D. (1987). Paediatric brain injuries: The nature, clinical course, and early outcomes in a defined United States population. Pediatrics, 79, 501–507.Google Scholar
  99. Kreutzer, J. and Wehman, P. (1990). Community integration following traumatic brain injury. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  100. Larsson, B. (1992). Behavioural treatment of somatic disorders in children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 68–81.Google Scholar
  101. Lash, M., Russo, D.C, Navalta, C.P. and Baryza, M.J. (1994). Families of children with traumatic injuries identify needs for research and training. Neurorehabilitation. (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  102. Lavelle, J.M., Hovell, M.F., West, M.P. and Wahlgren, D.R., (1992). Promoting law enforcement for child protection: A community analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 885–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lehman, G.R. and Geller, E.S. (1990). Participative education for children: An effective approach to increase safety belt use. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 219–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lehr, E. (1990). Psychological management of traumatic brain injuries in children and adolescents. Rockville: Aspen Publishers.Google Scholar
  105. Lieh-Lai, M.W., Theodorou, A.A., Sarnaik, A.P., Meert, K.L., Moylan, P.M. and Canady, A.I. (1992). Limitations of the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting outcome in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Pediatrics, 120, 195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lombard, D., Neubauer, T.E., Canfield, D. and Winett, R.A. (1991). Behavioral community intervention to reduce the risk of skin cancer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 677–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lovaas, O.I., Koegel, R.L., Simmons, J.Q. and Long, J.S. (1973). Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 131–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Luce, S.C., Anderson, S.R., Thibadeau, S.F. and Lipsker, L.E. (1984). Preparing the client for transition to the community. In: W.P. Christian, G.T. Hannah and T.J. Glahn (Eds.), Programming effective human services: Strategies for institutional change and client transition. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  109. Luce, S.C and Christian, W.P. (Eds.) (1981). How to work with autistic and severely handicapped youth: A series of eight training manuals. Lawrence, Kansas: H and H Enterprises.Google Scholar
  110. Madden, N.A., Russo, D.C. and Cataldo, M.F. (1980). Environmental influences on mouthing in children with lead intoxication. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, 5, 207–216.Google Scholar
  111. Mash, E.J. and Terdal, L.G. (1988). Behavioral assessment of child and family disturbance. In: E.J. Mash and L.G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders (2nd ed., pp. 3–65). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  112. Mash, E.J. and Terdal, L.G. (1990). Assessment strategies in clinical behavioral pediatrics. In: A.M. Gross and R.S. Drabman (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavioral pediatrics. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  113. Matera, C, Warren, W.B., Moomjy, M., Fink, D.J. and Fox, H.E. (1990). Prevalence of use of cocaine and other substances in an obstetric population. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 163, 797–801.Google Scholar
  114. McCalla, S., Minkoff, H.L., Feldman, J., Delke, I., Salwin, M., Valencia, G. and Glass, L. (1991). The biologic and social consequences of perinatal cocaine use in an inner-city population: Results of an anonymous cross-sectional study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 164, 625–630.Google Scholar
  115. Michandani, H.G., Michandani, I.H., Helman, F., English-Rider, R., Rosen, S. and Laposata, E.A. (1991). Passive inhalation of free-base cocaine (crack) smoke by infants. Archives of Pathological Laboratory Medicine, 775, 494–498.Google Scholar
  116. Michaud, L.J., Rivara, F.P., Jaffe, K.M., Fay, G. and Dailey, J.L. (1993). Traumatic brain injury as a risk factor for behavioral disorders in children. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 368–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Miller, J. J. 3rd. (1993). Psychosocial factors related to rheumatic diseases in childhood. Journal of Rheumatology Supplements, 38, 1–11.Google Scholar
  118. Minkin, N., Braukmann, C.J., Minkin, B.L., Timbers, G.D., Timbers, B.J., Fixsen, D.L., Phillips, E.L. and Wolf, M.M. (1976). The social validation and training of conversation skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 127–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. National Head Injury Foundation Task Force (1989). An educators manual: What educators need to know about students with traumatic brain injuries. Framingham, MA: National Head Injury Foundation.Google Scholar
  120. National Paediatric Trauma Registry. (1993, October). Facts from the National Paediatric Trauma Trauma RegistryFact sheet #1. Boston: Research and Training Center in Rehabilitation and Childhood Trauma.Google Scholar
  121. Olegrard, R., Sabel, K.C., Aronsson, M., Sandin, D., Johanssen, P.R., Carlsson, C, Kyllerman, M., Iversen, K. and Hrbek, A. (1979). Effects on the child of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Retrospective and prospective studies. Acta Paeditrica Scandinavia, 275, 112–121.Google Scholar
  122. Perrin, E.C., Ayoub, C.C. and Willett, J.B. (1993). In the eyes of the beholder: Family and maternal influences on perceptions of adjustment of children with chronic illness. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 74,94–105.Google Scholar
  123. Perrott, S.B., Taylor, H.G. and Montes, J.L. (1991). Neurological sequelae, familial stress, and environmental adaptation following paediatric head injury. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7, 69–86.Google Scholar
  124. Peterson, L., and Schick, B. (1993). Empirically derived injury prevention rules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 451–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Pless, L.B. and Nolan, T. (1991). Revision, replication, and neglect: Research on maladjustment in chronic illness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 347–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rapp CA., Shera W. and Kisthart, W. (1993). Research strategies for consumer empowerment of people with severe mental illness. Social Work, 38, 727–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Residency Review Committee for Pediatrics. (1992). Essentials of accredited residencies. In: S.L. Etzel (Ed.), Directory of graduate medical education programs: 1992–1993 (p. 97). Chicago: American Medical Association.Google Scholar
  128. Rivara, J.B., Jaffe, K.M., Fay, G.C., Polissar, N.L., Martin, K.M., Shurtleff, H.A. and Liao, S. (1993). Family functioning and injury severity as predictors of child functioning one year following traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 1047–1055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Roberts, M.C. and Lyman, R.D. (1990). The psychologist as a paediatric consultant: Inpatient and outpatient. In: A.M. Gross and R.S. Drabman (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavioral pediatrics. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  130. Rosner, B.S. (1974). Recovery of function and localization of function in historical perspective. In: D.G. Stein, J.J. Rosen and N. Butters (Eds.), Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system (pp. 1–29). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  131. Ross, L.V., Friman, P.C. and Christophersen, E.R. (1993). An appointment-keeping improvement package for outpatient pediatrics: Systematic replication and component analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 461–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Russo, D.C. (1986). Chronicity and normalcy as the basis for research and treatment in chronic disease in children. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J.D. Arasteh and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior: A behavioral pediatrics perspective (pp. 521–536). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  133. Russo, D.C. (1990). A requiem for the passing of the three-term contingency. Behavior Therapy, 21, 153–165.Google Scholar
  134. Russo, D.C. (1993). The primacy of an independent behaviour therapy community in the evolution of clinical psychology. Behaviour Change, 10, 13–15.Google Scholar
  135. Russo, D.C, Bird, B.L. and Masek, BJ. (1980). Assessment issues in behavioral medicine. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 1–18.Google Scholar
  136. Russo, D.C. and Budd, K.S. (1987). Limitations of operant practice in the study of disease. Behavior Modification, 11, 264–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Russo, D.C. and Varni, J.W. (1982). Behavioral Pediatrics: Research and Practice. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  138. Savage, R.C. (1993). Children with traumatic brain injury. TBI Challenge. Summer, 4–5.Google Scholar
  139. Schwartz, G. E. and Weiss, S. M. (1978). Yale conference on behavioral medicine: A proposed definition and statement of goals. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Shaffer, D., Bijur, P., Chadwick, O.F.D. and Rutter, M. (1980). Head injury and later reading disability. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 19, 592–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Smart, R.B. (1991). Crack cocaine use: A review of prevalence and adverse effects. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 17, 13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sollee, N.D. and Kindlon, D.J. (1987). Lateralized brain injury and behavior problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 479–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sosland, J.M. and Christophersen, E.R. (1991). Does Sleep Tight work? A behavioral analysis of the effectiveness of Sleep Tight for the management of infant colic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 161–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Stark, L.J., Knapp, L.G., Bowen, A.M. and Powers, S.W. (1993). Increasing calorie consumption in children with cystic fibrosis: Replication with 2-year follow-up. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 435–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Stokes, T.F. and Baer, D.M. (1976). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367.Google Scholar
  146. Streissguth, A.P., Barr, H.M. and Sampson, P.D. (1990). Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure: Effects on child IQ and learning problems at age 7 1/2 years. Alcohol Clinical and Experimental Research, 14, 662–669.Google Scholar
  147. Streissguth, A.P., Grant, T.M., Barr, H.M., Brown, Z.A., Martin, J.C., Mayock, D.E., Ramey, S.L. and Moore, L. (1991). Cocaine and use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 164, 1239–1243.Google Scholar
  148. Tabor, B.L., Smith-Wallace, T. and Yonekura, M.L. (1990). Perinatal outcome associated with PCP versus cocaine use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 16, 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Tarnowski, K.J. (1991). Disadvantaged children and families in paediatric primary care settings: I. Broadening the scope of integrated mental health service. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 351–359.Google Scholar
  150. Timmermans, S.R. and Christensen, B. (1991). The measurement of attention deficits in TBI children and adolescents. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 9, 26–31.Google Scholar
  151. Tyler, J.S. and Mira, M.P. (1993). Educational modifications for students with head injuries. Teaching Exceptional Children, Spring, 24–27.Google Scholar
  152. VanBaar, A. (1990). Development of infants of drug dependent mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 911–920.Google Scholar
  153. VanDyke, D.C. and Fox, A.A. (1990). Fetal drug exposure and its possible implications for learning in the preschool and school-age population. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 160–163.Google Scholar
  154. Varni, J.W., Bessman, C.B., Russo, D.C. and Cataldo, M.F. (1980). Behavioral treatment of paediatric chronic pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 61, 375–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Varni, J.W. and Dietrich, S.L. (1981). Behavioral pediatrics: Towards a reconceptualization. Behavioral Medicine Update, 3, 5–7.Google Scholar
  156. Waaland, P.K. and Kreutzer, J.S. (1988). Family response to childhood traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 3, 51–63.Google Scholar
  157. Wagaman, J.R., Miltenberger, R.G. and Arndorfer, R.E. (1993). Analysis of a simplified treatment for stuttering in children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 53–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wahler, R.G. and Hann, D.M. (1986). A behavioral systems perspective in childhood psychopathology: Expand ing the three-term operant contingency. In: N.A. Krasnegor, J.D. Arasteh, and M.F. Cataldo (Eds.), Child health behavior (pp. 146–170), New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  159. Walker, L.S., Garber, J. and Greene, J.W. (1993). Psychosocial correlates of recurrent childhood pain: A comparison of paediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain, organic illness, and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 248–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Warren, K.R. and Bast, R.J. (1988). Alcohol related birth defects: An update. Public Health Reports, 103,630–642.Google Scholar
  161. Whyte, W.F. (1991). Participatory action research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  162. Ylvisaker, M. (1985). Head injury rehabilitation: Children and adolescents. San Diego: College-Hill.Google Scholar
  163. Ylvisaker, M. (1986). Language and communication disorders following paediatric head injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 1, 48–56.Google Scholar
  164. Ylvisaker, M. (1993). Communication outcome in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury. Neurop sychological Rehabilitation, 3, 367–387.Google Scholar
  165. Zeltzer, L.K., Barr, R.G., McGrath, P.A. and Schechter, N.L. (1992). Paediatric pain: Interacting behavioral and physical factors. Pediatrics, 90, 816–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis C. Russo
    • 1
  • Carryl P. Navalta
    • 1
  1. 1.Health and Rehabilitative ServicesThe May Institute Inc.RandolphUSA

Personalised recommendations