Advertisement

Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior

  • Brian A. Iwata
  • Jennifer B. Zarcone
  • Timothy R. Vollmer
  • Richard G. Smith
Part of the Current Issues in Autism book series (CIAM)

Abstract

The immediate trauma and chronic risks associated with self-injurious behavior (SIB) make it perhaps the most dramatic behavior disorder among individuals diagnosed with autism and related developmental disabilities. The disorder actually consists of a diverse array of responses having multiple origins, and the only common feature shared by all SIB is that it “produces physical injury to the individual’s own body” (Tate & Baroff, 1966). In this chapter, we describe the demography and etiology of SIB, and review current approaches to assessment and treatment.

Keywords

Developmental Disability Positive Reinforcement Apply Behavior Analysis Negative Reinforcement Escape Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, L., Dancis, J., & Alpert, M. (1978). Behavioral contingencies and self-mutilation in Lesch-Nyhan disease. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 529–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelrod, S., & Apsche, J. (1983). The effects of punishment on human behavior. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  3. Ayers, A. J. (1972). Sensory integration and learning disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  4. Ayers, A. J. (1974). The development of sensory integrative theory and practice. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  5. Bachman, J. A. (1972). Self-injurious behavior: A behavioral analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 80, 211–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, J., & Meyerson, L. (1970). Effect of vibratory stimulation on a retardate’s self-injurious behavior. Psychological Aspects of Disability, 17, 133–137.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, S. L. (1983). Extraneous aversives. In S. Axelrod & J. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 247–284). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  8. Barrera, F. J., & Teodoro, G. M. (1990). Flash bonding or cold fusion? A case analysis of gentle teaching. In A. C. Repp & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Perspectives on the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. 199–214). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  9. Belluzzi, J. D., & Stein, L. (1977). Enkephalin may mediate euphoria and drive-reduction reward. Nature, 266, 556–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bijou, S. W., Peterson, R. F., & Ault, M. H. (1968). A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concepts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 175–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borthwick, S. A., Meyers, C. E., & Eyman, R. K. (1981). Comparative adaptive and maladaptive behavior of mentally retarded clients of five residential settings in three western states. In R. H. Bruininks, C. E. Meyers, B. B. Sigford, & K. C. Lakin (Eds.), Deinstitutionalization and community adjustment of mentally retarded people (pp. 351–359). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  12. Brantner, J. P., & Doherty, M. A. (1983). A review of timeout: A conceptual and methodological analysis. In S. Axelrod & J. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 87–132). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  13. Bright, T., Bittick, K., & Fleeman, B. (1981). Reduction of self-injurious behavior using sensory integrative techniques. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 35, 167–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bruhl, H. H., Fielding, L. H., Joyce, M., Peters, W., & Wiesler, N. (1982). Thirty-month demonstration project for the treatment of self-injurious behavior in severely retarded individuals. In J. H. Hollis & C. E. Meyers (Eds.), Life threatening behavior (pp. 191–275). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, E. G. (1977). The motivation of self-injurious behavior: A review of some hypotheses. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 800–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr, E. G., & Lovaas, O. I. (1983). Contingent electric shock as a treatment for severe behavior problems. In S. Axelrod & J. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 221–245). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  18. Carr, E. G., Newsom, C. D., & Binkoff, J. A. (1976). Stimulus control of self-destructive behavior in a psychotic child. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 139–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr, E. G., Newsom, C., & Binkoff, J. (1980). Escape as a factor in the aggressive behavior of two retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 101–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cataldo, M. F., & Harris, J. (1982). A biological basis for self-injury in the mentally retarded. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charmove, A. S., & Harlow, H. F. (1970). Exaggeration of self-aggression following alcohol ingestion in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75, 207–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cipani, E. (1990). “Excuse me: I’ll have...” Teaching appropriate attention-getting behavior to young children with severe handicaps. Mental Retardation, 28, 29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davidson, P. W., Kleene, B. M., Carroll, M., & Rockowitz, R. J. (1983). Effects of naloxone on self-injurious behavior: A case study. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Day, R. M., Rea, J. A., Schussler, N. G., Larsen, S. E., & Johnson, W. L. (1988). A functionally based approach to the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Behavior Modification, 12, 565–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DeLissovoy, V. (1961). Head banging in early childhood: A study of incidence. Journal of Pediatrics, 58, 803–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeLissovoy, V. (1963). Head banging in early childhood: A suggested cause. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 102, 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DeMet, E. M., & Sandman, C. A. (1991). Models of the opiate system in self-injurious behavior: A reply. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 694–696.Google Scholar
  28. Dorsey, M. F., Iwata, B. A., Ong, P., & McSween, T. (1980). Treatment of self-injurious behavior using a water mist: Initial response suppression and generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 343–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dorsey, M. F., Iwata, B. A., Reid, D. H., & Davis, P. A. (1982). Protective equipment: Continuous and contingent application in the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dura, J. R., Mulick, J. A., & Hammer, D. (1988). Rapid clinical evaluation of sensory integrative therapy for self-injurious behavior. Mental Retardation, 26, 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1988). Identifying the variables maintaining self-injurious behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 99–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Egel, A. L. (1981). Reinforcer variation: Implications for motivating developmentally disabled children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 345–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Favell, J. E., Azrin, N. H., Baumeister, A. A., Carr, E. G., Dorsey, M. F., Forehand, R., Foxx, R. M., Lovaas, O. I., Rincover, A., Risely, T. R., Romanczyk, R. G., Russo, D. C., Schroeder, S. R., & Solnick, J. V. (1982). The treatment of self-injurious behavior. Behavior Therapy, 13, 529–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Favell, J. E., McGimsey, J. F., & Jones, M. L. (1978). The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as a positive reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 225–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Favell, J. E., McGimsey, J. F., & Schell, R. M. (1982). Treatment of self-injury by providing alternate sensory activities. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fisher, W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin, I. (1992). A comparison of two approaches for identifying reinforcers for persons with severe and profound disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 491–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fovel, J. T., Lash, P. S., Barron, D. A., Jr., & Roberts, M. S. (1989). A survey of self-restraint, self-injury, and other maladaptive behaviors in an institutionalized retarded population. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 10, 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foxx, R. M., & Bechtel, D. R. (1983). Overcorrection: A review and analysis. In S. Axelrod & J. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 133–220). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  39. Gambrill, E. D. (1977). Behavior modification: Handbook of assessment, intervention, and evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  40. Gedye, A. (1989). Extreme self-injury attributed to frontal lobe seizures. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94, 20–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Green, C. W., Reid, D. H., Carnipe, V. S., & Gardner, S. M. (1991). A comprehensive evaluation of reinforcer identification processes for persons with profound multiple handicaps. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 537–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffin, J. C., Williams, D. E., Stark, M. T., Altmeyer, B. K., & Mason, M. (1984). Self-injurious behavior: A state-wide prevalence survey, assessment of severe cases, and follow-up of aversive programs. In J. C. Griffin, D. E. Williams, M. T. Stark, B. K. Altmeyer, & H. K. Griffin (Eds.), Advances in the treatment of self-injurious behavior (pp. 1–25). Austin: Texas Planning Council for Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
  43. Halpern, L. F., & Andrasik, F. (1986). The immediate and long-term effectiveness of overcorrection in treating self-injurious behavior in a mentally retarded adult. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 7, 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harmatz, M. G., & Rasmussen, W. A. (1969). A behavior modification approach to head banging. Mental Hygiene, 53, 590–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Harris, S. L., & Ersner-Hershfield, R. (1978). Behavioral suppression of seriously disruptive behavior in psychotic and retarded patients: A review of punishment and its alternatives. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1352–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herman, B. H. (1991). Effects of opioid receptor antagonists in the treatment of autism and self-injurious behavior. In J. Ratey (Ed.), Mental retardation: Developing pharmacotherapies (pp. 107–137). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hill, J., & Spreat, S. (1987). Staff injury rates associated with the implementation of contingent restraint. Mental Retardation, 25, 141–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Iwata, B. A. (1987). Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: An emerging technology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 361–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Kalsher, M. J., Cowdery, G. E., & Cataldo, M. F. (1990). Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 11–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Kissel, R. C., Nau, P. A., & Farber, J. M. (1990). The Self-Injury Trauma (SIT) Scale: A method for quantifying surface tissue damage caused by self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., & Zarcone, J. R. (1990). The experimental (functional) analysis of behavior disorders: Methodology, applications, and limitations. In A. C. Repp & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Perspectives in nonaversive and aversive interventions with developmentally disabled persons (pp. 301–330). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Johnson, H. G., Ekman, P., Friesen, W., Nyhan, W. L., & Shear, C. (1976). A behavioral phenotype in the deLange syndrome. Pediatric Research, 10, 843–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, I. H., & Barraclough, B. M. (1978). Auto-mutilation in animals and its relevance to self-injury in man. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 58, 40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones, L. J., Singh, N. N., & Kendall, K. A. (1991). Comparative effects of gentle teaching and visual screening on self-injurious behavior. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 38, 37–47.Google Scholar
  56. Jones, R. S. P., & McCaughy, R. E. (1992). Gentle teaching and applied behavior analysis: A critical review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 853–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. King, B. H., McCracken, J. T., & Poland, R. E. (1991). Deficiency in the opioid hypotheses of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 692–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. La Vigna, G. W., & Donnellan, A. M. (1986). Alternatives to punishment: Solving behavior problems with nonaversive strategies. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  59. Lemke, H. (1974). Self-abusive behavior in the mentally retarded. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 28, 94–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lesen, M., & Nyhan, W. L. (1964). A familial disorder of uric acid metabolism and central nervous system function. American Journal of Medicine, 36, 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Linscheid, T. R., Iwata, B. A., Ricketts, R. W., Williams, D. E., & Griffin, J. C. (1990). Clinical evaluation of the Self-Injurious Behavior Inhibiting System (SIBIS). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 53–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lovaas, O. I., Newsom, C. D., & Hickman, C. (1987). Self-stimulatory behavior and perceptual reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 45–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lovaas, O. I., & Simmons, J. Q. (1969). Manipulation of self-destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 143–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lutzker, J. R., & Wesch, D. (1983). Facial screening: History and critical review. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 9, 209–223.Google Scholar
  65. Mace, F. C., & Belfiore, P. (1990). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of escape-motivated stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 507–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mace, F. C., Hock, M. L., Lalli, J. S., West, B. J., Belfiore, P., Pinter, E., & Brown, D. K. (1988). Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 123–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mace, F. C., Lalli, J. S., & Pinter Lalli, E. (1991). Functional analysis and treatment of aberrant behavior. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12, 155–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mace, F. C., Page, T. J., Ivancic, M. T., & O’Brien, S. (1986). Analysis of environmental determinants of aggression and disruption in mentally retarded children. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 7, 203–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mason, S. A., & Iwata, B. A. (1990). Artifactual effects of sensory-integrative therapy on self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 362–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Matson, J. L., & DiLorenzo, T. M. (1984). Punishment and Its Alternatives: New perspectives for behavior modification. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  71. Maurice, P., & Trudel, G. (1982). Self-injurious behavior: Prevalence and relationships to environmental events. In J. H. Hollis & C. E. Meyers (Eds.), Life-threatening behavior: Analysis and intervention (pp. 81–103). Washington: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  72. Mazaleski, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., Zarcone, J. R., & Smith, R. G. (1993). Analysis of the reinforcement and extinction components in DRO contingencies with self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 143–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGee, J. J., & Gonzalez, L. (1990). Gentle teaching and the practice of human interdependence: A preliminary group study of 15 persons with severe behavioral disorders and their caregivers. In A. C. Repp & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Perspectives on the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. 237–254). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  74. McGee, J. J., Menolascino, F. J., Hobbs, D. C., & Menousek, P. E. (1987). Gentle teaching: A non-aversive approach to helping persons with mental retardation. New York: Human Sciences Press.Google Scholar
  75. Michael, J. L. (1982). Distinguishing between discriminative and motivational functions of stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 149–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Newton, J. T., & Sturmey, P. (1991). The Motivation Assessment Scale: Inter-rater reliability and internal consistency in a British sample. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 35, 472–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Nyhan, W. L. (1976). Behavior in the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 235–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pace, G. M., Ivancic, M. T., Edwards, G. L., Iwata, B. A., & Page, T. J. (1985). Assessment of stimulus preference and reinforcer value with profoundly retarded individuals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pace, G. M., Iwata, B. A., Cowdery, G. E., Andree, P. J., & Mclntyre, T. (1993). Stimulus (instructional) fading during extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pace, G. M., Iwata, B. A., Edwards, G. L., & McCosh, K. C. (1986). Stimulus fading and transfer in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peters, J. M. (1967). Caffeine induced hemorragic automutilation. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynomie et de Therapy, 169, 139–146.Google Scholar
  82. Plummer, S., Baer, D. M., & LeBlanc, J. M. (1977). Functional considerations in the use of time out and an effective alternative. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 689–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pyles, D. A. M., & Bailey, J. S. (1990). Diagnosing severe behavior problems. In A. C. Repp & N. N. Singh (Eds.), Perspectives on the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. 381–401). Sycamore, IL: Sycamore Publishing.Google Scholar
  84. Rast, J., Johnston, J. M., Drum, C., & Conrin, J. (1981). The relation of food quantity to rumination behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Richmond, G., Schroeder, S. R., & Bickel, W. (1984). Tertiary prevention of attrition related to self-injurious behavior. In K. D. Gadow (Ed.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 5, pp. 97–116). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  86. Rincover, A., Cook, R., Peoples, A., & Packard, D. (1979). Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 221–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rincover, A., & Devany, J. (1982). The application of sensory extinction procedures to self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 67–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rojahn, J., Mulick, J. A., & Schroeder, S. R. (1980). Ecological assessment of self-protective devices in three profoundly retarded adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rolider, A., & Van Houten, R. (1985). Movement suppression time-out for undesirable behavior in psychotic and severely developmentally delayed children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 275–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Russo, D. C., Carr, E. G., & Lovaas, O. I. (1980). Self-injury in the pediatric population. In J. Ferguson & C. B. Taylor (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 23–41). Hollis-wood, NY: Spectrum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sandman, C. A., Barron, J. L., & Colman, H. (1990). An orally administered opiate blocker, naltrexone, attenuates self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Singh, N. N., & Millinchamp, C. J. (1987). Independent and social play among profoundly mentally retarded adults: Training, maintenance, generalization, and long-term follow-up. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 23–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, R. G., Iwata, B. A., Vollmer, T. R., & Pace, G. M. (1992). On the relationship between self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 433–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smolev, S. R. (1971). Use of operant techniques for the modification of self-injurious behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76, 295–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Snyder, S. H. (1977). Opiate receptors in the brain. New England Journal of Medicine, 296, 266–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snyder, S. H. (1984). Drug and neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Science, 224, 22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Solnick, J. V., Rincover, A., & Peterson, C. R. (1977). Some determinants of the reinforcing and punishing effects of time out. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 415–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Spain, B., Hart, S. A., & Corbett, J. (1984, November). The use of appliances in the treatment of severe self-injurious behavior. Occupational Therapy, 353-357.Google Scholar
  100. Steege, M. V., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Cigrand, K. K., & Cooper, L. J. (1989). The use of behavioral assessment to prescribe and evaluate treatments for severely handicapped children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Steege, M. W., Wacker, D. P., Cigrand, K. C., Berg, W. K., Novak, C. G., Reimers, T. M., Sasso, G. M., & DeRaad, A. (1990). Use of negative reinforcement in the treatment of self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 459–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Mayer, G. R. (1911). Applying behavior-analysis procedures with children and youth. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  103. Tate, B. G., & Baroff, G. S. (1966). Aversive control of self-injurious behavior in a psychotic boy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Thompson, T., Hackenberg, T., & Schaal, D. (1991). Pharmacologic treatments for behavior problems in developmental disabilities. In U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Treatment of destructive behaviors in persons with developmental disabilities (NIH Publication No. 91-2410, pp. 343-445). Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Health.Google Scholar
  105. Touchette, P. E., MacDonald, R. F., & Langer, S. N. (1985). A scatter plot for identifying stimulus control of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 343–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1991). Establishing operations and reinforcement effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 279–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vollmer, T. R., & Iwata, B. A. (1992). Differential reinforcement as treatment for behavior disorders: Procedural and functional variations. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 393–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Vollmer, T. R., Iwata, B. A., Zarcone, J. R., Smith, R. G., & Mazaleski, J. L. (1993). The role of attention in the treatment of attention-maintained self-injurious behavior: Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 9–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Watson, J., Singh, N. N., & Winton, A. S. W. (1986). Suppressive effects of visual and facial screening on self-injurious finger-sucking. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90, 526–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Weeks, M., & Gaylord-Ross, R. (1981). Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 449–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wells, M., & Smith, D. W. (1983). Reduction of self-injurious behavior of mentally retarded persons using sensory integrative techniques. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 87, 664–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Zarcone, J. R., Rodgers, T. A., Iwata, B. A., Rourke, D. A., & Dorsey, M. F. (1991). Reliability analysis of the Motivation Assessment Scale: A failure to replicate. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 12, 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian A. Iwata
    • 1
  • Jennifer B. Zarcone
    • 2
  • Timothy R. Vollmer
    • 3
  • Richard G. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe University of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral PsychologyThe Kennedy InstituteBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations