Management of Patients with Hyperventilation-Related Disorders
Recent comprehensive reviews of hyperventilation (Cowley and Roy-Byrne, 1987; Gardner and Bass, 1989; Garssen and Rijken, 1986; Magarian, 1982) reflect the magnitude of current interest in the subject. In part, this was stimulated by the publication of DMS-III-R in 1980 (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), when panic disorder was proposed as a separate diagnostic entity. That panic disorder and hyperventilation share common features is not disputed. The main area of controversy concerns the nature of the relationship between them.
KeywordsPanic Disorder Panic Attack Ventilatory Response Respiratory Control Paced Breathing
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed.,revised. APA, Washington, D.C.: A.P.A., 1980.Google Scholar
- Bass, C., Lelliott, P., and Marks, I. Fear talk versus voluntary hyperventilation in agrophobics and normals: A controlled study. Psychological Medicine,1989, 19, 669–676. Google Scholar
- de Ruiter, C., Rijken, H., Garssen, B., and Kraaimaat, F. Breathing retraining, exposure and a combination of both, in the treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1989, 27, 647–655.Google Scholar
- Fyer, A.J. Effects of discontinuation of antipanic medication. In I. Hand, and H.-J. Wittchen (Eds.), Panic and Phobias. Vol. 2. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1988.Google Scholar
- Grossman, P., de Swart, J.C., and Defares, B.B. A controlled study of a breathing therapy for treatment of hyperventilation syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1985, 29, 49–58.Google Scholar
- Hibbert, G.A., and Chan, M. Respiratory control: Its contribution to the treatment of panic attacks. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1989, 154, 232–236.Google Scholar
- Hibbert, G.A., and Pilsbury, D. Hyperventilation: Is it a cause of panic attacks? British Journal of Psychiatry, 1989, 155, 805–809.Google Scholar
- Magarian, G.J. Hyperventilation syndromes: Infrequently recognised common expressions of anxiety and stress. Medicine, 1982, 61, 219–236.Google Scholar
- Salkovskis, P.M. Hyperventilation and anxiety. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 1988, 1, 76–82. Salkovskis, P.M., Jones, D.R., and Clark, D.M. Respiratory control in the treatment of panic attacks: Replication and extension with concurrent measurement of pCO2. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1986, 148, 526–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- van den Hout, M.A., Hoekstra, R., Arntz, A., Cristiaanse, M., Ranschaert, W., and Schouten, E. Hyperventilation is not diagnostically specific to panic patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1992, 53, 182–191.Google Scholar