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Image Contrast Mechanisms and Topology of Polyethylene Single Crystals: Low-Voltage, High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Hao Jiang
  • S. S. Patnaik
  • P. Haaland
  • D. L. Vezie
  • T. Bunning
  • J. Williams
  • W. Wade Adams

Abstract

Polyethylene (PE) single crystals were chosen to study the interaction of low energy (0.8 – 5 keV) electron beams with polymeric materials using a low-voltage, high-resolution scanning electron microscope (LVHRSEM). The charge contrast mechanism was investigated as a function of the conductivity of the substrates, the accelerating voltage, and the sample thickness (from monolayer to multilayers). Comparison of a series of substrates from insulators (such as mica) to conductors (such as aluminum) showed a wide range of image contrast. The best contrast case was PE on carbon film on copper grids (normally used for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) at an accelerating voltage of 1 kV. The effect of the incident voltage on sample contamination and radiation damage of PE samples was also studied. In addition, topological features of PE single crystals as observed by atomic force microscope (AFM) were compared with the results from LVHRSEM.

Keywords

Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy Image Electron Yield Contrast Mechanism Conventional Electron Microscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    D.T. Grubb, Review: Radiation damage and electron microscopy of organic polymers, J. Mat.Sci., 9: 1715–1736 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    B. Wunderlich, “Macromolecular Physics”, vol. 1, Academic Press, N. Y, (1973).Google Scholar
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    A. Keller, Some new habit features in crystals of long chain compounds, part I. paraffins, Phil. Mag. 6: 329–343 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hao Jiang
    • 1
  • S. S. Patnaik
    • 2
  • P. Haaland
    • 1
  • D. L. Vezie
    • 3
  • T. Bunning
    • 4
  • J. Williams
    • 5
  • W. Wade Adams
    • 4
  1. 1.Lawrence Associates IncorporatedDaytonUSA
  2. 2.University of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  4. 4.Wright Laboratory/MLPJWright Patterson Air ForceBaseUSA
  5. 5.Universal Energy Systems, Inc.DaytonUSA

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