Laparoscopic Management of Choledocholithiasis

  • Lewis B. Schwartz
  • Theodore N. Pappas


Although the first cholecystectomy was performed by Langenbuch in 1882 [1], the common bile duct was not explored until 1890 [2–4]. For nearly 80 years, surgical common bile duct exploration was the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis. The era of nonoperative or minimally invasive treatrient of common duct stones was ushered in by the introduction of interventional radiologic methods for stone extraction in 1964 [5], followed by the development of retrograde endoscopic techniques first introduced in 1974 [6, 7].


Bile Duct Common Bile Duct Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Cystic Duct Common Bile Duct Stone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Langenbuch C: Ein Fall von Extirpation der Gallanblase Wegen Chronischer Cholelithiasis: Heilung. Berlin Klin Wochenschr 1882, 19:725–727.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Courvoisier LG, ed.: Casuistisch-Statistiche Beiträadotdotge zur Pathologie und Chirurgie der Gallenwege. Leipzig: F.C.W. Vogel; 1890.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kummell H. Zur Cirugie der Gallenblase. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1890, 16:237–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beal J: Historical perspective of gallstone disease. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1984, 158:181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazzariello RM: Residual biliary tract stones: nonoperative treatment of 570 patients. Surg Ann 1976, 8:113–144.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Classen M, Demling L: Endoskopische Sphinkterotomie der Papilla Vateri und Steinextraktion aus dem Ductus Choledochus. Dtsch Med Wochensch r 1974, 99:496–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kawai K, Akasaka Y, Murakami K, et al.: Endoscopic sphincterotomy of the ampulla of Vater. Gastmintest Endosc 1974, 20:148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perissat J, Vitale GC: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: gateway to the future. Am J Surg 1991, 161:408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nagy AG, Pulin EC, Girotti MJ, et al.: History of laparoscopic surgery. Can J Surg 1992, 35:271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cuschieri A, Dubois F, Mouriel J, et al.: The European experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg 1991, 161:385–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ko ST, Airan MC: Review of 300 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies: development, evolution, and results. Surg Endosc1991, 5:103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Southern Surgeons Club: A prospective analysis of 1518 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. N Engl JMed 1991, 324:1073–1078.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Larson GM, Vitale GC, Casey J, et al.: Multipractice analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1,983 patients. Am J Surg 1992, 163:221–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Soper NJ: Laparoscopic treatment of gallstones: advances in minimally invasive surgery. 1993, 1:38–73.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reddick EJ, Olsen D, Alexander W, et al.: Laparoscopic laser cholecystectomy and choledocholithiasis. Surg Endosc 1990, 4:133–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bagnato VJ, McGee GE, Hatten LE, et al.: Justification for routine cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991, 1:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruhn EW, Miller FJ, Hunter JG: Routine fluoroscopic cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an argument. Surg Endosc 1991, 5:111–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacobs M, Verdeja JC, Goldstein HS: Laparoscopic choledocholithotomy. J Laparoendo Surg 1991, 1:79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Petelin JB: Laparoscopic approach to common duct pathology. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991, 1:33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Quattlebaum JK, Flanders HD: Laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct stones. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991, 1:26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sackier JM, Berci G, Paz-Partlow M: Laparoscopic transcystic choledocholithotomy as an adjunct to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 1991, 57:323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sackier JM, Berci G, Phillips E, et al.: The role of cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arch Surg 1991, 126:1021–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shapiro SJ, Gordon LA, Daykhovsky L, Grundfest W: Laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct: experience in 16 selected patients. J Laparoendosc Surg 1991, 1:333–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spaw AT, Reddick EJ, Olson DO: Laparoscopic laser cholecystectomy: analysis of 500 procedures. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1991, 1:2–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stoker ME, Leveillee RJ, McCann JC, Maini BS: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. J Laparoendosc Surg 1991, 1:287–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Appel S, Krebs H, Fern D: Techniques for laparoscopic cholangiography and removal of common duct stones. Surg Endosc 1992, 6:134–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carroll BJ, Phillips EH, Dayhovsky L, et al.: Laparoscopic choledochoscopy: an effective approach to the common duct. J Laparoendosc Surg 1992, 2:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cuschieri A, Berci G, eds: Laparroscopic Biliary Surgery, edn2. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1992:155–169.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dion YM, Morin J, Dionne G, Dejoie C: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and choledocholithiasis. Can J Surg 1992, 35:67–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gelin M: Laparoscopic treatment of common bile duct stones BrJ Surg 1992, 79(suppl):S69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Helms B, Czametzki HD: Complete laparoscopic therapy of gallbladder and common bile duct stones [abstract]. BrJ Surg 1992, 79(suppl):S68-s69.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hunter JG, Soper NJ: Laparoscopic management of bile duct stones. Surg Clin North Am 1991, 72:1077–1097.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hunter JG: Laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration. Am J Surg 1992, 163:53–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ido K, Kimura K, Kawamoto C, et al.: Preliminary experience using laparoscopic transcystic cholangioscopy for treatment of common bile duct stones. Endoscopy 1992, 24:750–753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Newman L III, Mason E, Luke JP, et al.: Alternative management of choledocholithiasis. J Laparnendosc Surg 1992, 2:335–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith PC, Clayman RV, Soper NJ: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and choledochoscopy for the treatment of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Surgery 1992, 111:230–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Swanstrom L, Sangster W: Laparoscopic choledochoscopy [abstract]. Surg Endosc 1992, 6:92.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vitale GC, Larson GM, Wieman TJ, et al.: The use of ERCP in the management of common bile duct stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc 1993, 7:9–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hicken WF, Stevenson VL, Franz B, Crowder E: The technique of operative cholangiography. Am J Surg 1949, 78:347–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Gallstones and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Laparoendosc Surg 1993, 3:77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Del Santo P, Kazarian KK, Rogers JF, et al.: Prediction of operative cholangiography in patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy with routine liver chemistries. Surgery 1985, 98:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hauer-Jensen M, Käaresen R, Nygaard K, et al.: Predictive ability of choledocholithiasis indicators. Ann Surg 1985, 202:64–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thompson JE, Bennion RS: Intraoperative endoscopy of the biliary tract. Surg Endosc 1988, 2:172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aliperti G, Edmundowicz SA, Soper NJ, Ashley SW: Combined endoscopic sphincterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with choledocholithiasis and cholecystolithiasis. Ann Intern Med 1991, 115:783–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boulay J, Schellenberg R, Brady PG: Role of ERCP and therapeutic biliary endoscopy in association with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol 1992, 87:837–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Graham SM, Flowers JL, Bailey RW, et al.: Utility of planned perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Endoscopy 1992, 24:788–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vanneman W, Kingsbury R, Duberman E, Lee M: When is ERCP indicated before laparoscopic cholecystectomy? [abstract] Gastrointest Endosc 1992, 38:265.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mo L, Yau M, Hwang M, et al.: The role of ERCP and therapeutic biliary endoscopy in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Laparoendosc Surg 1993, 3:19–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    US diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: a reappraisal. Radiology 1986, 161:133–134.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cotton PB, Lehman G, Vennes J, et al.: Endoscopic sphincterotomy complications and their management: an attempt at consensus. Gastrointest Endosc 1991, 37:383–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cotton PB: Endoscopic management of bile duct stones (apples and oranges). Gut 1984, 25:587–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cotton PB, Baillie J, Pappas TN, Meyers WS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the biliary endoscopist. Gastrointest Endosc 1991, 37:94–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Neuhaus H, Feussner H, Ungeheuer A, et al.: Prospective evaluation of the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Endoscopy 1992, 24:745–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Safrany L, Cotton PB: Endoscopic management of choledocholithiasis. Surg Clin North Am 1982, 62:825–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL, Fraser I, Fossard DP: The management of common bile duct calculi by endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with gallbladders in situ. BrJ Surg 1984, 71:69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davidson BR, Neoptolemos JP, Carr-Locke DL: Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery. Gut 1988, 114–120.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Testoni PA, Tittobello A: Long-term efficacy of endoscopic papillosphincterotomy for common bile duct stones and benign papillary stenosis. Surg Endosc 1991, 5:135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Croker JR, Williams SG, Charlton M, et al.: Endoscopic therapy for bile duct stones in a geriatric pooulation. Posterad Med J 1992, 68:457–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Reddick EJ, Olsen D, Spaw A, et al.: Safe performance of difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Am J Surg 1991, 161:377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ascher SM, Evans SRT, Goldberg J, et al.: Intraoperative bile duct sonography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: experience with a 12.4-MHz catheter-based US probe. Radiology 1992, 185:493–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zucker KA: The expanding role of therapeutic laparoscopy in general surgery. Ann Surg [Residents Edition] 1992;3.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    McSherry CK, Glenn F: The incidence and causes of death following surgery for nonmalignant bilary tract disease. Ann Surg 1980, 191:271–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    White TT, Hart MJ: Cholangiography and small duct injury. Am J Surg 1985, 149:640–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Scher KS, Scott-Conner CE: Complications of biliary surgery. Am Surg 1987, 53:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sheridan WG, Williams HOL, Lewis MH: Morbidity and mortality of common bile duct exploration. BrJ Surg 1987, 74:1095–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neoptolemos JP, Davison BR, Shaw DE, et al.: Study of common bile duct exploration and endoscopic sphincterotomy in a consecutive series of 438 patients. BrJ Surg 1987, 74:916–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Miller BM, Kozarek RA, Ryan JA, et al.: Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones. Ann Surg 1988, 207:135–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stiegmann GV, Pearlman NW, Goff JS, et al.: Endoscopic cholangiography and stone removal prior to cholecystectomy: a more cost-effective approach than operative duct exploration? Arch Surg 1989, 124:787–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pappas TN, Slimane TB, Brooks DC: 100 Consecutive common duct explorations without mortality. Ann Surg 1990, 211:260–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stain SC, Cohen H, Tsuishoysha M, Donovan AJ: Choledocholithiasis: endoscopic sphincterotomy or common bile duct exploration. Ann Surg 1991, 213:627–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stiegmann GV, Goff JS, Mansour A, et al.: Precholecystectomy endoscopic cholangiography and stone removal is not superior to cholecystectomy, cholangiography, and common duct exploration. Am J Surg 1992, 163:227–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Greiner L, Müunks C, Heil W, Jakobeit C: Gallbladder stone fragments in feces after biliary extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Gastroenterology 1990, 98:1620–1624.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lewis B. Schwartz
  • Theodore N. Pappas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations