Advertisement

Developmental Patterns in Disabled Infants and Preschoolers

  • Theodore D. Wachs
  • Robert Sheehan
Part of the Perspectives in Developmental Psychology book series (PDPS)

Abstract

In the review of evidence on the pattern of cognitive and socioemotional development of the young developmentally disabled child, three factors combine to make the job difficult. First, as will become obvious, although for some disabilities, such as retardation, there is ample evidence on developmental patterns across the life span, for other groups, such as the mutiply handicapped, there are large gaps in our knowledge base, particularly below the age of 5 years. Often, only a single study represents our knowledge of development in critical areas. This problem is compounded by the all-too-common practice of aggregating data for different disability conditions under the labels of handicapped or developmentally delayed, and comparing the performance of a heterogeneous group of handicapped children to that of the nonhandicapped (i.e., Mundy, Seibert, & Hogan, 1984). As will become obvious, this assumption that all handicapping conditions are functionally equivalent in their developmental patterns does not appear to be justified by the data. Further, even when supposedly homogeneous handicaps are used, children with differing degrees of handicaps are very often clumped together. Thus, it is not uncommon to find studies in which the term motor-impaired is used to designate children with and without central nervous system (CNS) etiology (i.e., Fishman & Palkes, 1974). As a result, even when consistent relationships are found, the degree of generalizability is unclear, as distinctions based on the degree of the etiology of the handicap are rarely made.

Keywords

Down Syndrome Autistic Child Handicapped Child Impaired Child Retarded Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T., & Edelbrock, C. (1978). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin, 85(6), 1275–1301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Als, H., Tronick, E., & Brazelton, T. (1980). Stages of early behavioral organization. In T. Field (Ed)., High risk infants and children.Google Scholar
  3. Altshuler, K. (1974). The social and psychological development of the deaf child: Problems, their treatment, and prevention. American Annals of the Deaf, 119(4), 365–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold R., & Tremblay, A. (1979). Interaction of deaf and hearing preschool children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 12, 245–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashton, R., & Beasley, M. (1982). Cerebral laterality in deaf and hearing children. Developmental Psychology, 18, 294–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banham, K. (1972). Progress in mental development of retarded cerebral palsied children. Exceptional Children, 39, 240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Banham, K. (1976). Progress in motor development of retarded cerebral palsied children. Rehabilitation Literature, 37, 13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron, J. (1972). Temperament profile of children with Down’s syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 14, 640–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battle, C. V. (1977). Disruptions in the socialization of a young severely handicapped child. In R. P. Marinelli & A. E. Dell Orto (Eds.), The psychological and social impact of physical handicap. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Best, B., & Roberts, G. (1976). Early cognitive development in hearing impaired children. American Annals of the Deaf, 121, 560–564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bigelow, A. (1980). Object permanence for sound producing objects: Parallels between blind and sighted infants. Paper presented to International Conference on Infant Studies. New Haven.Google Scholar
  12. Bigelow, A. (1983). Development of the use of sound in search behavior of infants. Developmental Psychology, 19, 317–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blank, M., & Bridge, W. (1966). Conceptual cross-model transfer in deaf and hearing impaired children. Child Development, 37, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridges, F., & Cicchetti, D. (1982). Mother’s ratings of the temperament characteristics of Down Syndrome infants. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 238–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks-Gunn, J. & Lewis, M. (1982). Affective exchanges between normal infants and handicapped infants and their mothers. In T. Field & A. Fogel (Eds.), Emotion and early interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, A. (1974). The role of strategic behavior in retardate memory. In N. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol 8). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Brunick, P. (1981). Relationship between intellectual functioning and communicative competence in deaf children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 30, 3–13.Google Scholar
  18. Burlingham. D. (1975). Special problems of blind infants. Psychoanalytic study of the child, 30.Google Scholar
  19. Burlinghan, D. (1979). To be born blind in a sighted world. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 34, 5–30.Google Scholar
  20. Caeg, W. (1970). A simplified method for measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chess, S., Korn, S., & Fernandez, P. (1971). Psychiatric disorders of children with congenital rubella. New York: Brunner-Mazel.Google Scholar
  22. Churchill, D. (1972). The relations of infantile autism and early childhood schizophrenia to developmental language disorders of childhood. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2(2), 182–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ciccletti, D., & Sroute, A. (1978). An organizational view of affect: Illustration from the study of Down Syndrome infants. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The development of affect. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Clark, P., & Rutter, M. (1979). Task difficulty and task performance in autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 271–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cruickshank, W., Hallahan, D., & Bice, H. (1976a). The evaluation of intelligence. In W. Cruickshank (Ed.), Cerebral palsy: A developmental disability. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cruickshank, W., Hallahan, D., & Bice, H. (1976b). Personality and behavioral characteristics. In W. Cruickshank (Ed.), Cerebral palsy: A developmental disability. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Decarie, T., (1969). A study of the mental and emotional development of the Thalidamide child. In B. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior (Vol 4). New York: Barnes & Noble.Google Scholar
  28. DeMyer, M., Barton, S., DeMyer, W., Norton, J., Allen, J., & Steele, R. (1973). Prognosis in autism: A followup study. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 3, 199–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. DeMyer, M., Barton, S., Alpern, G., Kimberlin, C., Allen, J., Yang, E., & Steele, R. (1974). The measured intelligence of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4(1), 42–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dubose, R. (1976). Predictive value of infant intelligence scales with multiply handicapped children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 81(4), 388–390.Google Scholar
  31. Dubose, R. (1977). Assessing severely handicapped children. Focus on exceptional children, 9, 1–13.Google Scholar
  32. Eichorn, S. (1982). Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: A significant cause of deafness and mental deficiency. American Annuals of the Deaf, 127, 838–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fishman, M., & Palkes, H. (1974). The validity of psychometric testing in children with congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 16, 180–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 297–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraiberg, S. (1968). Parallel and divergent patterns in blind and sighted infants. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 23, 264–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fraiberg, S., & Freedman, D. (1969). Some studies in the ego development of the congenitally blind child. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 19, 113–170.Google Scholar
  37. Fraiberg, S., Siegel, B., & Gibson, R. (1966). The role of sound in the search behavior of a blind infant. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 21, 327–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Freedman, D. (1981). Speech, language and the vocal-auditory connection. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 36, 105–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Freedman, D., Canady, A., & Robinson, J. (1971). Speech and psychic structure. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 19, 765–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman, R. (1967). Emotional reactions of handicapped children. Rehabilitation Literature, 28, 274–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Furth, H. (1966). Thinking without languages: Psychological implications of deafness. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  42. Galenson, E., Miller, R., Kaplan, E., & Rothstein, A. (1979). Assessment of development in the deaf child. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 18, 128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geffner, D., & Freeman, L. (1980). Assessment of language comprehension of 6 year old deaf children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 13, 455–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goetzinger, C., & Proud, G. (1975). The impact of hearing impairment on the psychological development of children. Journal of Auditory Research, 15, 1–60.Google Scholar
  45. Gottesman, M. (1971). A comparative study of Piagetian developmental schema of sighted children with that of a group of blind children. Child Development, 42, 573–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gottesman, M. (1973). Conservation development in blind children. Child Development, 44, 824–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Greenberg, M., & Marvin, R. (1979). Attachment patterns in profoundly deaf preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 25, 265–279.Google Scholar
  48. Greenberg, R., & Field, T. (1982). Temperament ratings of handicapped infants during classroom, mother and teacher interactions. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 7, 387–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grossman, H. (1977). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  50. Gruen, G., & Vore, D. (1972). Development of conservation in normal and retarded children. Developmental Psychology, 6(1), 146–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gustafson, G. (1984). Effects of the ability to locomote on infant’s social and exploratory behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 20, 39–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris, R. (1978). Impulse control in deaf children: Research and clinical issues. In L. Liben (Ed.), Deaf children developmental perspectives. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Heffernan, L., Black, F., & Poche, P. (1982). Temperament patterns in young neurologically handicapped children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 7, 415–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heider, F., & Heider, G. (1941). Studies in the psychology of the deaf. Psychological Monographs, 242.Google Scholar
  55. Horn, D., Lord, E., Lorch, F., & Culatte, B. (1985). Distractability and vocabulary deficits in children with Spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 16, 180–185.Google Scholar
  56. Hubert, N., & Wachs, T. (1985). Parental perceptions of the behavioral components of infant easiness-difficultness. Child Development, 56, 1525–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Inhelder, B. (1968). The diagnosis of reasoning in the mentally retarded. New York: Day.Google Scholar
  58. Kahn, J. (1976). Utility of the Uzgiris and Hunt Scales of Sensorimotor Development with severely and profoundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 80(6), 663–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kahn, J. (1978). Acceleration of object permanence with severely and profoundly retarded children. AAESPH Review, March, 15-22.Google Scholar
  60. Kahn, J. (1984). Cognitive training and its relationship to the language of retarded children. In J. Berg (Ed.), Perspectives and Progress in mental retardation. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  61. Karagan, N. (1979). Intellectual functioning in Duchenne muscular distrophy: A review. Psychological Bulletine, 86, 250–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keogh, B., & Pullis, M. (1980). Temperament influences on the development of exceptional children. In B. Keogh (Ed.), Advances in special education (Vol. 1).Google Scholar
  63. Kogan, K. (1980). Interaction systems between preschool handicapped or developmentally delayed children and their parents. In T. Field (Ed.), High risk infants and children: Adult and peer interactions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  64. Kopp, C., & Shaperman, J. (1973). Cognitive development in the absence of object manipulation during infancy. Developmental Psychology, 9, 430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Landau, B., Gleitman, H., & Spelke, E. (1981). Spatial knowledge and geometric representation in a child blind from birth. Science, 213, 1275–1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leibowitz, D., & Dubowitz, V. (1981). Intellect and behavior in Duchenne muscular distrophy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 577–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Levy-Schiff, R., & Hoffman, M. (1985). Social behavior of learning impaired and normally hearing preschoolers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lubin, B., & Sherrill, C. (1980). Motor creativity of preschool deaf children. American Annuals of the Deaf, 125, 460–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. MacDougall, J., & Rabinovitch, S. (1971). Early auditory deprivation and sensory compensation. Developmental Psychology, 5, 368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marquis, P., Palmer, F., Mahoney, W., & Capute, A. (1982). Extrapyramidal cerebral palsy: A changing view. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 3, 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meadow, K. (1975). The development of deaf children. In E. M. Hetherington, J. Hagen, R. Kron, & A. Stein (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 5). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  72. Meadow, K. (1980). Deafness and child development. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  73. Mundy, P., Siebert, J., & Hogan, A. (1984). Relationship between sensorimotor and communication abilities in developmentally delayed children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 30, 33–46.Google Scholar
  74. Mykelbust, H. (1964). The psychology of deafness. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  75. Neilson, H. (1971). Psychological appraisal of children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 13, 707–720.Google Scholar
  76. Reynell, J. (1978). Developmental patterns of visually handicapped children. Child Care, Health, and Development, 4, 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Richardson, S. (1969). The effects of physical disability on the socialization of a child. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  78. Rogers, S. (1977). Characteristics of the cognitive development of profoundly retarded children. Child Development, 48, 837–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosenzweig, M. (1966). Environmental complexity, cerebral change and behavior. American Psychologist, 21, 3321–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rutter, M. (1972). Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 315–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rutter, M. (1978). Brain damage syndromes in childhood. In S. Chess & A. Thomas (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development. New York: Brunner-Mazel.Google Scholar
  82. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. (1967a). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: 1. Description of the sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1169–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. (1967b). A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis: 2. Social and behavioral outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1183–1199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sameroff, A., & Chandler, M. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casuality. In P. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of Child Development Research (Vol. 3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sandier, A. (1963). Aspects of passivity and ego development in the blind child. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 10, 343–360.Google Scholar
  86. Schimer, B. (1985). An analysis of the language of young hearing impaired children in terms of syntax, semantics and use. American Annuals of the Deaf, 100, 15–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schlesinger, H. (1978). The effects of deafness on child development: An Ericksonian perspective. In L. Liben (Ed.), Deaf children: Developmental perspectives. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Schlesinger, H., & Meadow, K. (1972). Sound and sign: Childhood deafness and mental health. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  89. Scott, R. (1969). The socialization of blind children. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  90. Seidel, U., Chadewick, D., & Rutter, M. (1975). Psychological disorders in crippled children: A comparative study of children with and without brain damage. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 17, 563–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smits, B., & Mommers, M. (1976). Differences between blind and sighted children on WISC verbal subtests. New Outlook for the Blind, 70, 240–246.Google Scholar
  92. Spain, B. (1974). Verbal and performance ability in preschool children with spina bifida. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 16, 773–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spitz, H. (1983). Critique of the developmental position in mental retardation research. Journal of Special Education, 17, 261–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sterritt, G., Camp, B., & Lysman, B. (1966). Effects of early auditory deprivation upon auditory and visual information processing. Perceptual Motor Skills, 23, 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  96. Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H. (1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  97. Uzgiris, I., & Benson, J. (1980). Infant use of sound in search for objects. Paper presented to the International Conference on Infant Studies, New Haven, April.Google Scholar
  98. Uzgiris, I., & Hunt, J. (1975). Assessment in infancy: Ordinal scales of psychological development. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  99. Vandell, D., & George, L. (1981). Social interaction in hearing and deaf preschoolers: Successes and failures in initiations. Child Development, 52, 627–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vandell, D., Anderson, L., Ehrhardt, G., & Wilson, K. (1982). Integrating hearing and deaf preschoolers. Child Development, 53, 1354–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. VanderVeer, B., & Schweid, E. (1974). Infant assessment: Stability of mental functioning in young retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 79(1), 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Lieshout, C. (1973). The assessment of stability and change in per interactions of normal hearing and deaf preschool children. Paper presented to the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Ann Arbor, August.Google Scholar
  103. Wassermann, G., Allen, R., & Solomon, C. (1985). At risk toddlers and their mothers: The special case of physical handicap. Child Development, 56, 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wedell-Monig, J., & Lumley, J. (1980). Child deafness and mother-child interaction. Child Development, 55, 766–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Weisz, J., & Zigler, E. (1979). Cognitive development in retarded and non-retarded persons: Piagetian tests of the similar sequence hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 831–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilton, K., & Boersma, F. (1974). Conservation research with the mentally retarded. In N. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 8). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Zigler, E. (1969). Developmental versus difference theories of mental retardation and the problem of motivation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 73, 536–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore D. Wachs
    • 1
  • Robert Sheehan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Foundation and Curriculum, College of EducationCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations