Advertisement

Clinical Assessment of Memory in Children

A Developmental Framework for Practice
  • Thomas A. Boyd
Part of the Critical Issues in Neuropsychology book series (CINP)

Abstract

An assessment of memory functions has long been considered an essential component of the neuropsychiatric mental status exam, as well as the more comprehensive, standardized neuropsychological evaluation. The vast proliferation of literature on the experimental investigation of human learning and memory (Craik, 1979; Horton & Mills, 1984) amply attests to the interest and importance attached to understanding and measuring this realm of cognitive activity. Russell (1981) has pointed out that this rich heritage of research provides a sound practical and theoretical foundation for the construction of clinical memory tests but has not led to parallel advances in their actual construction. Not even such clinically derived theories as Luria’s (1973, 1976, 1980) on the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying memory and its disorders have led to the construction of a comprehensive and valid psychometric assessment of memory.

Keywords

Memory Task Memory Ability Memory Scale Visual Motor Memory Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anastasi, A. (1982). Psychological testing. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Appel, L., Cooper, R., McCarrell, N., Sims-Knight, J., Yussen, S., & Flavell, J. (1972). The development of the distinction between perceiving and memorizing. Child Development, 43, 1365–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bach, M., & Underwood, B. (1970). Developmental changes in memory attributes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 292–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, H., & Leland, B. (1967). Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  6. Benton, A. L. (1974). Revised Visual Retention Test: Clinical and experimental applications (4th ed.). New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  7. Bransford, J. D. (1979). Human cognition: Learning, understanding, and remembering. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, A. (1975). The development of memory: Knowing, knowing about knowing, and knowing how to know. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 103–152). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, A. (1978). Knowing when, where and how to remember: A problem in metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, A. (1979). Theories of memory and the problems of development: Activity, growth, and knowledge. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 225–258). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, A., Bransford, J., Ferrara, R., & Campione, J. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In P. Mussen, J. Flavell, & E. Markman (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 77–166). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, A., Campione, J., & Gilliard, D. (1974). Recency judgments in children: A production deficiency in the use of redundant background cues. Developmental Psychology, 10, 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burtis, P. (1982). Capacity increase and chunking in the development of short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 34, 387–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buschke, H. (1973). Selective reminding for analysis of memory and learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 543–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buschke, H. (1974). Components of verbal learning in children: Analysis by selective reminding. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 488–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Case, R., Kurland, D., & Goldberg, J. (1982). Operational efficiency and the growth of short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 33, 386–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cecci, S., & Tishman, J. (1984). Hyperactivity and incidential memory: Evidence for attentional diffusion. Child Development, 55, 2192–2203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chi, M. (1976). Short-term memory limitations in children: Capacity on processing deficits? Memory and Cognition, 4, 559–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, S. (1982). The Post-Wechsler Memory Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 380–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Craik, F. I. M. (1979). Human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 63–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Craik, F., & Lockhart, R. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Denman, S. B. (1984). Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale. Charleston, SC: Sidney B. Denman.Google Scholar
  23. Erickson, R. C., & Scott, M. L. (1977). Clinical memory testing: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 1130–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Esrov, L., Hall, J., & LaFaver, D. (1974). Preschoolers conceptual and acoustic encoding as evidenced by release from PI. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4, 89–90.Google Scholar
  25. Flavell, J. (1970). Developmental studies of mediated memory. In H. W. Reese & L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 181–211). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  26. Flavell, J., & Wellman, H. (1977). Metamemory. In R. V. Kail & J. W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Gaddes, W. H. (1980). Learning disabilities and brain function: A neuropsychological approach. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilliam, D., Fletcher, J., & Levin, H. (1986, February). Development of verbal, nonverbal and recognition memory in children. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  29. Golden, C. (1981). The Luria-Nebraska Children’s Battery: Theory and formulation. In G. Hynd & J. Obrzut (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment and the school-age child (pp. 277–302). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  30. Golden, C., Hammeke, T., & Purisch, A. (1980). The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  31. Graham, F., & Kendall, B. (1960). Memory for Designs Test: Revised general manual. Perceptual and Motor Skills, Monograph Supplement No. 2—VIII, 11, 147–188.Google Scholar
  32. Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. Hagen, J., Jongeward, R., & Kail, R. (1975). Cognitive perspectives on the development of memory. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 57–101). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hagen, J., & Kingsley, P. (1968). Labeling efforts in short-term memory. Child Development, 39, 113–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hammill, D. (1985). Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-DTLA-2. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  36. Hooper, S. R., & Boyd, T. A. (1986). Neurodevelopmental learning disorders. In J. E. Obrzut & G. W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuropsychology, Volume 2: Clinical Practice. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hooper, S., & Boyd, T. (1987). Test review: The Denman Neuropsychology Memory Scale. International Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 141–144.Google Scholar
  38. Horton, D. L., & Mills, C. B. (1984). Human learning and memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 361–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Howe, M., Brainerd, C., & Kingman, J. (1985). Storage-retrieval processes of normal and learning-disabled children: A stages-of-learning analysis of picture-word effects. Child Development, 56, 1120–1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hulicka, I. M. (1966). Age differences in Wechsler Memory Scale scores. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 109, 135–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hynd, G. W., & Obrzut, J. E. (Eds.). (1981). Neuropsychological assessment and the school-age child: Issues and procedures. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  42. Istomina, Z. (1975). The development of voluntary memory in preschool-age children. Soviet Psychology, 13, 5–64.Google Scholar
  43. Ivison, D. J. (1977). The Wechsler Memory Scale: Preliminary findings toward an Australian standardization. Australian Psychologist, 12, 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenkins, J. J. (1979). Four points to remember: A tetrahedral model of memory experiments. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 429–446). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Kagan, J., Klein, R., Finley, G., Rogoff, B., & Nolan, E. (1979). A cross-cultural study of cognitive development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 44(5, Serial No. 180).Google Scholar
  46. Kail, R. (1975). Interrelations in children’s use of mnemonic strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  47. Kail, R. (1979). Use of strategies and individual differences in children’s memory. Developmental Psychology, 15, 251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kail, R., & Hagen, J. W. (1982). Memory in childhood. In B. Wolman, G. Stricker, S. Ellman, P. Keith-Spiegel, & D. Palermo (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 350–366). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Kaufman, A. & Kaufman, N. (1983a). Administration and scoring manual for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  50. Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (1983b). Interpretive manual for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  51. Klonoff, H., & Kennedy, M. A. (1966). A comparative study of cognitive functioning in old age. Journal of Gerontology, 21, 239–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kreutzer, M., Leonard, C., & Flavell, J. (1975). An interview study of children’s knowledge about memory. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 40,(1, Whole No. 159).Google Scholar
  53. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  55. Luria, A. R. (1976). The neuropsychology of memory. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Luria, A. R. (1980). Higher cortical functions in man (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCarthy, D. (1972). Manual for the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  58. Meichenbaum, D., & Asarnow, J. (1978). Cognitive behavior modification and metacognitive development: Implications for the classroom. In P. Kendall & S. Hollon (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  59. Moley, B. E. (1977). Organizational factors in the development of memory. In R. V. Kail & J. W. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Murphy, M. D., Puff, C. R., & Campione, J. C. (1977). Clustering measures and organization. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  61. Naus, M. J., & Ornstein, P. (1977). Developmental differences in the memory search of categorized lists. Developmental Psychology, 13, 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Obrzut, J. E., & Hynd, G. W. (Eds.). (1986). Child Neuropsychology. Volume I: Theory and research. Voiume II: Clinical practice. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ornstein, P. A. (Ed.). (1978). Memory development in children. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  64. Ornstein, P., & Corsale, K. (1980). Organizational factors in children’s memory. In C. R. Puff (Ed.), Memory organization and structure. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  65. Overcast, T., Murphy, M., Smiley, S., & Brown, A. (1975). The effects of instruction on recall and recognition of categorized lists in the elderly. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 5, 339–341.Google Scholar
  66. Paris, S., & Lindauer, B. (1982). The development of cognitive skills during childhood. In B. Wolman, G. Stricker, S. Ellman, P. Keith-Spiegal, & D. Palermo (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  67. Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget’s developmental stages. Acta Psychologica, 32, 301–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Perlmutter, M., & Myers, N. (1979). Development of recall in 2-to 4-year-old children. Developmental Psychology, 15, 73–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pressley, M., & Brainerd, C. (Eds.). (1985). Cognitive learning and memory in children. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  70. Prigatano, G. P. (1977). The Wechsler Memory Scale is a poor screening test for brain dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 772–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Prigatano, G. P. (1978). Wechsler Memory Scale: A selective review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 816–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Radencich, M. C. (1986). Test review: Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude (DTLA-2). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 4, 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reitan, R. M., & Davison, L. A. (1974). Clinical neuropsychology: Current status and applications. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Rey, A. (1964). L’examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  75. Rourke, B. P., Bakker, D. J., Fisk, J. L., & Strang, J. D. (1983). Child neuropsychology: An introduction to theory, research and clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  76. Rourke, B., Fisk, J., & Strang, J. (1986). Neuropsychological assessment of children: A treatment-oriented approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  77. Russell, E. W. (1975). A multiple scoring method for the assessment of complex memory functions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 800–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Russell, E. W. (1981). The pathology and clinical examination of memory. In S. B. Filskov & T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology (pp. 287–319). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  79. Rutter, M. (Ed.). (1983). Developmental neuropsychiatry. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  80. Smiley, S. S., & Brown, A. L. (1979). Conceptual preference for thematic and taxonomic relations: A nonmonotonic age trend from preschool to old age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith, A. (1975). Neuropsychological testing in neurological disorders. In W. J. Friedlander (Ed.), Advances in neurology (Vol. 7). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  82. Sperber, R. D., McCauley, C., Ragin, R., & Weil, C. (1979). Semantic priming effects on picture and word processing. Memory and Cognition, 7, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spreen, O., Tupper, D., Risser, A., Tuokko, H., & Edgell, D. (1984). Human developmental neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Stevenson, H., Parker, T., & Wilkinson, A. (1975). Ratings and measures of memory processes in young children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  85. Stone, C. P., & Wechsler, D. A. (1945). Wechsler Memory Scale Form II. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  86. Stones, M. J. (1979). Rekitting the Wechsler paired-associate task: The Waterford Index. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 626–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tarter, R. E., & Goldstein, G. (1984). Advances in clinical neuropsychology (Vol. 2). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Terman, L., & Merrill, M. (1973). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. (Original work published 1960)Google Scholar
  89. Thorndike, R., Hagen, E., & Sattler, J. (1986). Guide for administering and scoring the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition. Chicago: Riverside.Google Scholar
  90. Wechsler, D. A. (1945). A standardized memory scale for clinical use. Journal of Psychology, 19, 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wechsler, D. A. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  92. Wedding, D., Horton, A. M., & Webster, J. (Eds.). (1986). The neuropsychology handbook: Behavioral and clinical perspectives. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Wickens, D. (1972). Characteristics of word encoding. In A. W. Melton & E. Martin (Eds.), Coding processes in human memory. Washington, D.C.: D. H. Winston.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Boyd
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cleveland Metropolitan General HospitalClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations