Cladistic Analysis of Partial ssrDNA Sequences among Unitunicate Perithecial Ascomycetes and Its Implications on the Evolution of Centrum Development

  • J. W. Spatafora
  • M. Blackwell
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 269)


Cladistic analysis using maximum parsimony was performed on partial sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA among unitunicate perithecial ascomycetes, “pyrenomycetes”. Two lines of evolution were inferred within the group. Centrum types as described by multiple investigators are mapped onto the gene tree, and the evolution of centrum development is discussed. The evanescent paraphyses of the Clavicipitales and Hypocreales are treated as homologous, whereas, the homology of the centrum pseudoparenchyma described in Diaporthe centrum type versus that described for the genera Melanospora, Ceratocystis and the order Microascales is questioned. The existence of two lineages within the pyrenomycetes argues that parallel evolution involving the formation of the central cavity is an important aspect of centrum development.


Neurospora Crassa Central Cavity Cladistic Analysis Phylogenetic Hypothesis Ophiostomatoid Fungus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexopolous, C.J. and C.W. Mims, 1979, Introductory Mycology, 3rd edition. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Andrus, C.F., 1936, Cell relations in the perithecium of Ceratostomella multiannulata, Mycologia 28: 133–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barr, M.E., 1990, Prodromus to nonlichenized, pyrenomycetous members of class Hymenoascornycetes, Mycotaxon 39: 43–184.Google Scholar
  4. Berbee, M.L. and J.W. Taylor, 1992, Convergence in ascospore discharge mechanism among pyrenomycete fungi based upon 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 59–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cannon, P.F. and D.L. Hawksworth, 1982, A re-evaluation of Melanospora Corda and similar pyrenomycetes, with a revision of the British species, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 84: 115–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Canham, S.C., 1969, Taxonomy and morphology of Hypocrea citrina, Mycologia 61: 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carey, S.T. and C.T. Rogerson, 1981, Morphology and cytology of Hypomyces polyporinus and its Sympodiophora anamorph, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 108: 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corlett, M., 1963, The developmental morphology of two species of Microascus, Canadian Journal of Botany 41:253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corlett, M., 1966a, Developmental studies in the Microascaceae, Canadian Journal of Botany 44:79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corlett, M., 1966b, Perithecium development in Chaetomium trigonosporum, Canadian Journal of Botany 44: 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Donoghue, M.J., J. A. Doyle, J. Gauthier, A.G. Kluge and T. Rowe, 1989, The importance of fossils in phylogeny reconstruction, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 431–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Douget, G., 1955, Le genre Melanospora, Le Botaniste 39:1–313.Google Scholar
  13. Douget, G., 1956, Morphologie, organogénie du Neocosmospora vasinfecta E.F. Smith et du Neocosmospora africana von Arx., Annales des Sciences Naturelle, Botanique, sér. 11, 17: 353–370.Google Scholar
  14. Douget, G., 1960, Morphologie, organogénie et évolution nucléaire de l’Ephichloë typhina. La place des Clavicipitaceae dans la classification, Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France 76: 171–203.Google Scholar
  15. Elliot, J.A., 1925, A cytological study of Ceratostomella fimbriata (E. & H.) Elliot, Phytopathology 5: 417–422.Google Scholar
  16. Gäumann, E.A., 1952, The Fungi: A Description of Their Morphological Features and Evolutionary Development, Hafher Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Gäumann, E. A. and C.W. Dodge, 1928, Comparative Morphology of Fungi, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hanlin, R.T., 1965, Morphology of Hypocrea schweinitzii, American Journal of Botany 52: 570–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hanlin, R.T., 1971, Morphology of Nectria haematococca, American Journal of Botany 58: 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang, L.H., 1976, Developmental morphology of Triangularia backusii (Sordariaceae), Canadian Journal of Botany 54:250–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang, L.H. and E.S. Luttrell, 1982, Development of the perithecium in Gnomonia comari (Diaporthaceae), American Journal of Botany 69: 421–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hausner, G., J. Reid, and G.R. Klassen, 1992, Do galeate-ascospore members of the Cephaloascaceae, Endomycetaceaey and Ophiostomataceae share a common phylogeny?, Mycologia 84:870–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hawksworth, D.L., B.C. Sutton and G.C. Ainsworth (eds.), 1983, Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, 7th edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.Google Scholar
  24. Hennig, W., 1966, Phylogenetic Systematics, University of Illinios Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  25. Hutchinson, S.A., 1950, The perithecia of Ophiostoma majus (van Beyma) Goidanich, Annals of Botany, n.s. 14: 115–125.Google Scholar
  26. Jensen, J.D., 1983, The development of Diaporthe phaseolarum variety sojae in culture, Mycologia 75: 1074–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luttrell, E.S., 1951, Taxonomy of the pyrenomycetes, University of Missouri Studies 3: 1–120.Google Scholar
  28. Luttrell, E.S., 1965, Paraphysoids, pseudoparaphyses, and apical paraphyses, Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48: 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mhasker, D.N. and V.G. Rao, 1976, Development of the ascocarp in Epichloë einerea (Clavicipitaceae), Mycologia 68: 994–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mirza, J.H., and A. Khatoon, 1973, Studies on Sordaria lumana (Fuckel) Winter: the cytology of ascus development and developmental morphology of the perithecium, Pakistan Journal of Botany 5: 19–28.Google Scholar
  31. Morgan-Jones, J.F., 1959, Morpho-cytological studies of the genus Gnomonia. III. Early stages of perithecial development, Svensk Botanisk Tidskrifi 53: 81–101.Google Scholar
  32. Parguey-Leduc, A., 1967, Recherches sur l’ontogénie et l’anatomie comparée des ascocarpes des Pyrénomycètes ascoloculaires. Seconde partie. Les ascocarpes des Pyrénomycètes ascoloculaires unituniques, Annales des Sciences Naturelle, Botanique, sér. 12, 8: 1–110.Google Scholar
  33. Rogerson, C.T., 1970, The hypocrealean fungi (ascomycetes, Hypocreales), Mycologia 62: 865–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosinski, M. A., 1961, Development of the ascocarp of Ceratocystis ulmi, American Journal of Botany 48: 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Samuels, G.J., 1973, Perithecial development in Hypomyces aurantius, American Journal of Botany 60: 268–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spatafora, J.W. and M. Blackwell, 1993a, Molecular systematics of unitunicate perithecial ascomycetes: the Clavicipitales-Hypocreales connection, Mycologia: in press.Google Scholar
  37. Spatafora, J.W. and M. Blackwell, 1993b, The polyphyletic origins of the ophiostomatoid fungi, Mycological Research: in press.Google Scholar
  38. Steirs, D.L., 1976, The fine structure of ascospore formation in Ceratocystis fimbriata, Canadian Journal of Botany 54: 1714–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Strickman, E. and M. Chafaud, 1961, Recherches sur les asques et les périthèces des Nectria et réflexions sur l’évolution des ascomycetes, Revue Générale de Botanique 68: 725–770.Google Scholar
  40. Swofford, D.L., 1990, PAUP: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, Version 3.0, Illinios Natural History Survey, Champaign.Google Scholar
  41. Swofford, D.L. and G.J. Olsen, 1990, Phylogeny reconstruction, In: Molecular Systematics (D.M. Hillis and C. Moritz, eds): 411–515. Sinaur Associates, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  42. Uecker, F. A., 1976, Development and cytology of Sordaria humana, Mycologia 68: 30–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Uecker, F. A., 1988, A timed sequence of development of Diaporthe phaseolarum (Diaporthaceae) from Stokesia laevis, Memoirs of the New York Botanic Garden 49: 38–50.Google Scholar
  44. van Wyk, P.W.J., M.J. Wingfield, and P.S. van Wyk, 1991, Ascospore development on Ceratocystis moniliformis, Mycological Research 95: 96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. van Wyk, P.W.J, and M.J. Wingfield, 1991a, Ultrastructure of ascosporogenesis in Ophiostoma davidsonii. Mycological Research 95: 725–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van Wyk, P.W.J, and M.J. Wingfield, 1991b, Ascospore ultrastructure and development in Ophiostoma cucullatum, Mycologia 83: 698–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Spatafora
    • 1
  • M. Blackwell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations