Characteristics and Disease Distribution
  • Stephen M. Eley
  • Lynn G. Bruce
  • Julian I. Delic
  • Robert M. Henstridge
  • Norman F. Moore
Part of the Applied Virology Research book series (AVIR, volume 2)


The family Bunyaviridae comprises over 200 viruses (Bishop et al., 1980), which share the following characteristics: The particles are spherical, 80–110 nm in diameter, and have a lipid envelope from which protrude 5- to I1-nm polypeptide spikes. The envelope encloses three helical nucleocapsids; the genome comprises three strands of single-stranded RNA (L, large; M, medium; S, small); each segment is complexed with the nucleocapsid protein (N) and linked by 3′–5′ end sequence hydrogen bonding into a closed circle. In addition to N, the viral polypeptides include two glycoproteins, designated Gl and G2, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome is in negative sense; replication involves transcription of the RNA into positive sense. Although coding assignments have been completed for other bunyavirus genera, this is not the case for the nairoviruses (Bishop, 1985). Several bunyaviruses are capable of heterologous virus genome segment reassortment, thus forming recombinant viruses; Bishop (1985) asserts that this is possible only between closely related members of the same serogroup. The site of maturation for bunyaviruses is mainly at smooth membranes, the virus accumulating in or near the Golgi vesicles. Several members of the family can be transmitted transovarially, venereally, and/or transstadially in arthropod vectors.


Neutralization Test Complement Fixation Test Suckling Mouse Nymphal Tick Sooty Tern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in this chapter


complement fixation test


enzyme linked immunosorbent assay


hemagglutination inhibition




indirect immunofluorescence test


neutralization test


mouse (hyperimmune) ascitic fluid


cytopathic effect


intracerebral inoculation


intraperitoneal inoculation


subcutaneous inoculation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen M. Eley
    • 1
  • Lynn G. Bruce
    • 1
  • Julian I. Delic
    • 1
  • Robert M. Henstridge
    • 1
  • Norman F. Moore
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Defence EstablishmentPorton DownSalisburyEngland

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