Antigenic Variation among Human Parainfluenza Type 3 Viruses
Parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) was originally isolated from a child with lower respiratory disease (Chanock et al., 1958) and has since been shown to be a significant cause of infantile pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and croup (Chanock et al., 1961). The frequency of hospitalization of infants or children with PIV3 infections has been estimated at 1 in 400 (Murphy et al., 1988). Infection with PIV3 frequently occurs during the first months of life, when infants still possess maternally derived neutralizing antibodies, and children typically experience repeated infections of decreasing severity during childhood. The factors contributing to the epidemiologic picture of partial immunity and reinfection are incompletely understood, but may reflect immunologic immaturity of the host, immunologic suppression by maternally derived antibodies, and production of nonfunctional antibodies (some of which may be obstructive).
KeywordsHemagglutination Inhibition Clinical Strain Antigenic Site Antigenic Variation Fusion Peptide
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