Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus Peptides and Neutralizing Antibody Responses
Poliomyelitis, a disease caused by polio virus, remains a serious health problem throughout the world. Only in developed countries where the existing vaccines are regularly administered is the incidence of the disease low. However, occasional outbreaks of poliomyelitis in developed countries, albeit rare, are evidence of the present danger of infection with neurovirulent strains that may be imported from other places in the world. Moreover, the existing live vaccines produce a very low level of disease in vaccine recipients and/or persons coming in contact with vaccine recipients. During 1975–1984, the incidence of vaccine related poliomyelitis in the United States of America was one case per 3.22 × 106 doses of live vaccine administered to immunologically normal recipients (CDC., 1986). Even such low incidence has aroused much public discussion recently (Chasan, 1986). Organizations concerned with public health, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), are interested therefore in developing programs that may eventually lead to the worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis. It should be stressed that the existing live (OPV) and inactivated (IPV) vaccines have proven to be excellent vaccines whenever applied properly. However, investigation to identify and eliminate those properties of the OPV strains that are responsible for reversion to the neurovirulent phenotype or research to explore the possibility of augmenting a protective immune response by the development of synthetic antigens has become an important subject for the WHO: Although much effort may have to be expended, a synthetic vaccine may be developed that possesses the required potency and that can be produced at such low cost, that it can be considered as an alternative to those vaccines now in existence. This in turn may serve as a model to combat other enteroviral disease such as hepatitis caused by HAV.
KeywordsSynthetic Peptide Capsid Protein Vaccine Recipient Neutralize Antibody Response Native Virus
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