Advertisement

Affirmative Action Programs: Discontinuities between Thoughts about Individuals and Thoughts about Groups

  • Robyn M. Dawes
Part of the Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues book series (SPAS, volume 3)

Abstract

I learned two very important lessons as a very young child when I attempted to put my toys away in a toy box that wasn’t big enough to hold them all. Deciding which toys to put in the box was equivalent to deciding which toys to leave (strewn) on the floor. Moreover, deciding which individual toys to put in the box (leave on the floor) was equivalent to deciding which group of toys to put in it (leave on the floor). Amalgamating these two lessons, deciding which group of toys to put in the box was equivalent to deciding which individual toys to leave on the floor, and vice versa, and so on. Whether they are justified analytically or empirically, these principles of duality and simultaneity (of group and individual decision) remain true.

Keywords

Base Rate Affirmative Action Reverse Discrimination Minority Group Member Aptitude Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bar-Hillel, M. (1990). Back to base rates. In R. M. Hogarth (Ed.), Insights in decision making: A tribute to Hillel J. Einhorn (pp. 200–216). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cole, W. (1993, January 6). By rewarding mediocrity, professors are discouraging excellence. The Chronicle of Higher Education, B2.Google Scholar
  3. Dawes, R. M. (1984). The road to mundane efficiency: Affirmative action as an example. Paper presented at Northwestern University Exxon Series organized by R. Hastie & G. Wills, November 30.Google Scholar
  4. Dawes, R. M. (1988). Rational choice in an uncertain world. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  5. Dawes, R. M. (1993). Racial norming: A debate. Academe, May-June, 31–37.Google Scholar
  6. Dawes, R. M., & Corrigan, B. (1974). Linear models in decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawes, R. M. & Eagle, J. (1976). Multivariate selection in a racist society: A systematically unfair approach. In M. Zeleny (Ed.), Multiple criteria decision making: Kyoto, 1975 (pp. 97–110). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edwards, W. (1968). Conservatism in human information processing. In B. Kleinmuntz (Ed.), Formal representation of human judgment (pp. 17–32). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. El-Baghdadi, M. A. (1987). The international sea-bed authority: The quest for efficiency and equity at the third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  10. Fischhoff, B., & Bar-Hillel, M. (1984). Focusing techniques: A shortcut to improving probability judgments? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 175–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. 410 U.S. 424 (1971), argued 14 December 1970, decided 8 March 1971, 8–0.Google Scholar
  12. Holmes, S. A. (1991, December 14). State job agencies may not give edge to minority testees. The New York Times, pp. 1, 47.Google Scholar
  13. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Rauschenberger, J. M. (1977). Fairness in psychological tests: Implications of four definitions of selection utility and minority hiring. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaufer, D. S., & Carley, K. M. (1993). Condensation symbols: Their variety and rhetorical function in political discourse. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 26(3), 201–206.Google Scholar
  15. Langer, E. (In press). The illusion of calculated decisions. In R. Schank & E. Langer (Eds.), Beliefs, reasoning, and decision making. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Leonard, J. S. (1990). The impact of affirmative action regulation and equal employment law on black employment. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McCormack, W. (Ed.). (1978). The Bakke decision: Implications for higher education admissions. Report of the American Council on Education/American Association of Law Schools Committee on Bakke.Google Scholar
  18. McGuire, T. W., & Melone, N. P. (1992). Conservatism in integrating information: Implications for international management. In Y. Ijiri & I. Nakano (Eds.), Business behavior and information (pp. 146–179). Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University Press (English version).Google Scholar
  19. Meehl, P. E., & Rosen, A. (1955). Antecedent probability and the efficacy of psychometric signs, patterns, or cutting scores. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 194–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Messick, D. M. (1993). Equality, fairness, and social conflict. Working paper no. 104. The Dispute Resolution Research Center, J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University.Google Scholar
  21. Messick, D. M., & Sentis, K. (1983). Fairness, preference, and fairness biases. In D. M. Messick & K. S. Cook (Eds.), Equity theory: Psychological and sociological perspectives (pp. 61–94). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  22. The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. (1991, December 21). No “norming” allowed (editorial), p. 6.Google Scholar
  23. Potter, J. R. (1982). Blood tests in paternity proceedings: The defense perspective. In P. A. Gilbert (Ed.), Winning the battle of the experts: Seminar syllabus (pp. 13–19). Oregon Trial Lawyers Association, November 20 (syllabus distributed although seminar not actually held).Google Scholar
  24. Redelmeier, D. A., & Tversky, A. (1990). Discrepancy between medical decisions for individual patients and for groups. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 1162–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Roy, M. C. (1991). The impact of causality on the use of base rates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
  26. Steele, S. (1990). The content of our character: A new vision of race in America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  27. Svenson, O. (1992). Differentiation and consolidation theory of human decision making: A frame of reference for the study of pre- and post-decision processes. Acta Psychologica, 80, 143–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1973). Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 207–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tversky, A., & Shafir, E. (1992). The disjunction effect in choice under uncertainty. Psychological Science, 3, 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. U. of California Regents v. Bakke 438 U.S. 265 (1978), argued 12 October 1977, decided 28 June 1978, 5–4.Google Scholar
  31. Van Avermaet, E. (1974). Equity: A theoretical and experimental analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  32. Von Winterfeldt, D., & Edwards, W. (1973). Costs and payoffs in perceptual research. Unpublished manuscript, Engineering Psychology Laboratory, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  33. Wainer, H. (1976). Estimating coefficients in linear models: It don’t make no nevermind. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 312–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wainer, H. (1978). On the sensitivity of regression and regressors. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 267–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilks, S. S. (1938). Weighting systems for linear functions of correlated variables when there is no dependent variable. Psychometrika, 8, 23–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wolfner, G., Faust, D., & Dawes, R. M. (1993). The use of anatomically detailed dolls in sexual abuse evaluations: The state of the science. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 2, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yaari, M. E., & Bar-Hillel, M. (1984). On dividing justly. Social Choice and Welfare, 1, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robyn M. Dawes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social and Decision SciencesCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations