Policy Schemas for Affirmative Action

  • Rupert W. Nacoste
Part of the Social Psychological Applications to Social Issues book series (SPAS, volume 3)


Controversy about policies of affirmative action is pervasive in American society. Today, almost anywhere affirmative action polices may influence hiring decisions people wonder about the role that such policies play in determining who will and will not be hired. This chapter examines people’s beliefs about affirmative action and how these beliefs influence their perceptions of and behavior toward those who may benefit from affirmative action policies.


Group Membership Affirmative Action Procedural Justice Policy Schema Apply Social Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arthur, W. Jr., Doverspike, D., & Fuentes, R. (1992). Recipients’ affective responses to affirmative action interventions: A cross-cultural perspective. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, W. G. (1986). Justice in intergroup conflict. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 153–175). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  4. Garcia, L. T., Erskin, N., Hawn, K., & Casmay, S. R. (1981). The effect of affirmative action on attributions about minority members. Journal of Personality, 49, 427–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., & Lucas, J. A. (1992). Presumed incompetent?: Stigmatization and affirmation action efforts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 536–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Heilman, M. E., & Herlihy, J. M. (1984). Affirmative action, negative reaction? Some moderating conditions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Howard, J., & Hammond, R. (1985, September). Rumors of inferiority: The hidden obstacles to black success. The New Republic, 17–21.Google Scholar
  8. Jencks, C. (1985). Affirmative action for blacks: Past, present and future. American Behavioral Scientist, 28, 731–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1983). Affirmative action attitudes: Effects it self-interest, racial affect and stratification beliefs on whites’ views. Social Forces, 61, 797–823.Google Scholar
  10. Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Major, B., Feinstein, J., & Crocker, J. (In press). The attributional ambiguity of affirmative action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. Google Scholar
  12. Murray, C. (1984, December). Affirmative racism: How preferential treatment works against blacks. The New Republic, 18–23.Google Scholar
  13. Murrell, A. J., Deitz, B. L., Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Drout, C. (In press). Averse racism and resistance to affirmative action: Perceptions of justice are not necessarily color blind. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. Google Scholar
  14. Nacoste, R. W. (1985). Selection procedure and responses to affirmative action: The case of favorable treatment. Law and Human Behavior, 9, 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nacoste, R. W. (1987a). But do they care about fairness?: The dynamics of preferential treatment and minority interest. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nacoste, R. W. (1987b). Affirmative action in American politics: Strength or weakness? Political Behavior, 9, 291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nacoste, R. W. (1989). Affirmative action and self-evaluation. In F. A. Blanchard & F. J. Crosby (Eds.), Affirmative action in perspective (pp. 103–109). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nacoste, R. W., & Lehman, D. R. (1987). Procedural stigma. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 17, 25–38.Google Scholar
  19. Nacoste, R. W. (1990). Sources of stigma: Analyzing the psychology of affirmative action. Law and Policy, 12, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nacoste, R. W. (1992). Toward a psychological ecology of affirmative action. Social Justice Research, 5, 269–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nacoste, R. W. (1993a). Procedural justice and preferential treatment: A brief review and comment. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 12, 230–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nacoste, R. W. (1993b). Procedural-interdependence: A general theory of the psychology of affirmative action. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  23. Nacoste, R. W. (1994). If empowerment is the goal: Affirmative action and social interaction. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 15, 87–112.Google Scholar
  24. Nacoste, R. W., Bane, D., & Shupe, L. (1993). Binding up the social fabric: Affirmative action, procedural context and attraction to an agency. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  25. Nacoste, R. W., & Fender (1993). Garcia revisited: Affirmative action and attributions about target group members qualifications. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  26. Nacoste, R. W., & Hummels, B. (1994). Affirmative action and the behavior of decision-makers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 595–613.Google Scholar
  27. Rosen, B., & Mericle, M. F. (1979). Influence of strong versus weak fair employment policies and applicant’s sex on selection decisions and salary recommendations in a management simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 435–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Steele, S. (1990). The content of our character. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  29. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. Google Scholar
  30. Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  31. Thibaut, J. W., & Walker, L. (1978). A theory of procedure. California Law Review, 66, 541–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Touhey, J. C. (1974). Effects of additional women professionals on ratings of occupational prestige and desirability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 86–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tyler, T. R. (1989). The psychology of procedural justice: A test of the group-value model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 830–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tyler, T. R. (1990). Why people obey the law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rupert W. Nacoste
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations