Advertisement

Studies on Ash Species Release during the Pyrolysis of Solid Fuels with a Heated Grid Reactor

  • Tuomas Valmari
  • Esko I. Kauppinen
  • Terttaliisa Lind
  • Minna Kurkela
  • Antero Moilanen
  • Riitta Zilliacus

Abstract

The release of alkalis (sodium and potassium) and five ash matrix elements (silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium and magnesium) during the pyrolysis of Polish coal, Pittsburgh #8 coal, peat and two wood chips was studied with a heated grid reactor using heating conditions relevant to fluidised bed combustion and gasification. Mineral particles or any other super micron fragments were found not to be released from any of the fuels during the pyrolysis. Less than 5 % of any of the elements studied were released from the fuels, with an exception of iron from wood chips. Some iron may have been released from the wood chips (less than 14 % from whole tree chips and less than 8 % from wood chips fuel fraction). Less than 1 % of iron was released from coals and peat.

Keywords

Wood Chip Bituminous Coal Fuel Particle Fuel Sample Pyrolysis Experiment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anthony, D.B., Howard, J.B., Meissuer, H.P. and Hottel, H.C. (1974). Rev. Sci. Instrum., 45, 992–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berner, A. (1984). “Design Principles of AERAS Low Pressure Impactor.” In Liu, B.Y.H., Pui, D.Y.H., Fissan H.J. (Eds.), Aerosols: Science, Technology and Industrial Applications of Airborne Particles. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Helble, J.J., Bool, L.E., Sarofim, A.F., Zeng, T., Peterson T.W., Gallien, D., Huffman, G.P., Huggins, F.E. and Shah. N. (1994). Fundamental Study of Ash Formation and Deposition: Effect of Reducing Stoichiometry. Quarterly Report No. 3. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE Contract No. DE-AC22–93PC92190.Google Scholar
  4. Hillamo, R.E. and Kauppinen, E.I. (1991). “On the Performance of the Berner Low Pressure Impactor.” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 14, 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kahata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. (1984). Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  6. Kurkela, E., Stiihlberg, P., Laatikainen, J. and Simell, P. (1993). “Development of simplified IGCC processes for hiofuels–supporting gasification research at VTT.” Bioresource Technology 46, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kurki, M. (1982). “Main chemical characteristics of peat soils. Peatlands and their utilization in Finland.” Finnish Peatland Society–Finnish National Committee of the International Peat Society, Helsinki, 37–41.Google Scholar
  8. Lind, T., Kauppinen, E., Jokiniemi, J.K., Maenhaut, W. and Pakkanen T. (1994). “Alkali metal behaviour in atmospheric circulating fluidised bed coal combustion.” In J. Williamson and F. Wigley (Eds.) “The Impact of Ash Deposition on Coal Fired Plants” Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference, Taylor and Francis, 77–88.Google Scholar
  9. Lind, T., Kauppinen, E., Maenhaut, W., Shah, A., and Huggins, F. (1995). “Ash vaporization in circulating fluidized bed coal combustion.” Accepted for publication in Aerosol Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  10. Manzoori, A. R. and Agarwal, P. K. (1992). “The fate of organically bound inorganic elements and sodium chloride during fluidized bed combustion of high sodium, high sulphur low rank coals.” Fuel 71, 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McKeough, P., Pyykkönen, M. and Arpiainen, V. (1995). “Rapid Pyrolysis of Kraft Black Liquor. Part 2. Release of Sodium.” Paperi ja Puu-Paper and Timber 77, 39: 44.Google Scholar
  12. Mengel, K. and Kirkby, E. A. (1987). Principles of plant nutrition. 4th Ed., International Potash Institute, Bern.Google Scholar
  13. Patashnick, H. and Rupprecht, G. (1991). “Continuous PM-10 Measurements Using the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance.” Journal of Air Waste Management Association 4l, 1079–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Raask, E. (1985). Mineral Impurities in Coal Combustion. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Solomon, P.R., Fletcher, T.H. and Pugmire, R.J. (1993). “Progress in coal pyrolysis.” Fuel 72, 587–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Solomon, P.R., Serio, M.A. and Suuberg, E.M. (1992). “Coal Pyrolysis: Experiments, Kinetic Rates and Mechanisms.” Prog. Energy Combust. 18, 133–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tuomas Valmari
    • 1
  • Esko I. Kauppinen
    • 1
  • Terttaliisa Lind
    • 1
  • Minna Kurkela
    • 2
  • Antero Moilanen
    • 2
  • Riitta Zilliacus
    • 3
  1. 1.VTT Chemical TechnologyVTT Aerosol Technology GroupFinland
  2. 2.GasificationVTT EnergyFinland
  3. 3.Radiation ChemistryVTT Chemical TechnologyFinland

Personalised recommendations