Embryology of the Endothelial Network: Is There an Hemangioblastic Anlage ?
Endothelial cells (EC) play a leading role in the modelling of blood vessels. In the embryo they form the blueprint of the vascular tree, the differentiation of which occurs by regionalization of EC properties and apposition of appropriate wall cells. In the adult animal, the turnover of EC, an extremely slow process, accelerates only in a few physiological situations and during tumor progression: formerly quiescent EC becoming reactivated, start multiplying, rupture their basement membrane and migrate. This process, termed angiogenesis (see Folkman, 1974) has been extensively studied at the cellular and biochemical levels. The interplay of growth factors involved either in maintenance of the quiescent state or in reactivation has been investigated. De novo appearance of EC during ontogeny is less well understood. This process, designated vasculogenesis (Pardanaud et al. 1987; Risau and Lemon, 1988) has been partly circumscribed but the cellular, biochemical and molecular events underlying it are still largely elusive.
KeywordsChick Embryo Hemopoietic Stem Cell Hemopoietic Cell Avian Embryo Blood Island
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