Antineutrophil-Cytoplasmic-Autoantibodies in Poststreptococcal Nephritis
Sera from 210 patients with APSGN, were tested for the presence of ANCA (IgG-isotype). Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) on ethanol fixed human PMNs was used, and for those positive sera, ELISA kits for PR3 (Proteinase 3) and MPO (Myeloperoxidase) was performed. ANCA were detected in 9% (18 out of 210 cases) in a predominantly diffuse cytoplasmic staining pattern in 14 cases (77%), and in a perinuclear pattern in the remaining 4 cases (22%). Anti-MPO was found in 4 cases (C-ANCA 3; P-ANCA 1) and anti-PR3 was always negative. The presence of ANCA was significantly associated with a more severe glomerular disease as assessed by the serum creatinine value and the crescents formation.
Longitudinal studies performed in 11 cases have shown that raised levels of these autoantibodies may persist for at least six months, without relationship with disease activity.
Further studies are required to dilucidate the specificity of these autoantibodies, and if its presence is either an epiphenomenon of the heterogeneous humoral immune response in streptococcal infection, or they play some pathogenic role in APSGN.
KeywordsSystemic Vasculitis Streptococcal Infection Crescentic Glomerulonephritis Crescent Formation Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
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