Skip to main content

Morphogenesis of the Septum in Ammonoids

  • Chapter
Ammonoid Paleobiology

Part of the book series: Topics in Geobiology ((TGBI,volume 13))

Abstract

Ammonoid septa are aragonitic structures that divide the shell internally into a series of chambers, the most adorai of which (also the largest one) is the living chamber and is occupied by the ammonoid’s soft body. The septal surface is roughly transverse to the shell tube. The most typical feature of the septum is its marginal corrugation. Individual folds are given different names according to their polarity. Adorally bulging major folds are called saddles, and apically directed folds are lobes. Minor elements of saddles and lobes are folioles and lobules, respectively. Marginal complication progressively decreases toward the septum center, which is a slightly undulated to flat surface. For each saddle or lobe, the fold or element placed opposite (i.e., linked by a minimal distance through the septum to the other side or to the other wall of the whorl cross section) is always of the same polarity (Figs. 9, 10). Therefore, the septum is adorally concave when sectioned across two opposite saddles and adorally convex when this is done across opposite lobes. On the basis of this property, the septum is an anticlastic surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Alexander. R. McN., 1962, Viscoelastic properties of the body wall of sea anemones, J. Exp. Biol. 39: 373–386.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, W. J.. 1957, Sutures and septa in Jurassic ammonite systematics. Geol. Mag. 94: 235–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, A. K., Kummel, B., and Wright, C. W., 1957, Mesozoic Ammonoidea, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L, Mollusca 4 ( R. C. Moore, ed.), Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, KS, pp. 80–437.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandel, K., 1981, The structure and formation of the siphuncular tube of Quenstedtoceras compared with that of Nautilus (Cephalopoda), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 161: 153–171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandel, K., 1982, Morphologie und Bildung der frühontogenetischen Gehäuse bei conchiferen Mollusken, Facies 7: 1–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandel. K., 1986, The ammonitella: A model of formation with the aid of the embryonic shell of archaeogastropods, Lethaia 19: 171–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bandel, K., and Boletzky, S. von, 1979, A comparative study of the structure, development and morphological relationships of chambered cephalopod shells, Veliger 21: 313–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1975, Organische Tapeten im Ammoniten-Phragmokon und ihr Einfluss auf die Fossilization, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1975: 12–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1977a, Cephalopoden-Septen Teil 1: Konstruktionsmorphologie des Ammoniten-Septurns, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 154: 290–366.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1977b, Cephalopoden-Septen Teil 2: Regelmechanismen im Gehäuse-und Septenbau der Ammoniten, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 155: 162–215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1978a, The impossibility of inverted suture lines in ammonites, Lethaia 11: 307–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1978b, Constructional morphology of ammonite septa, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 157: 150–155.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bayer, U., 1985, Pattern Recognition Problems in Geology and Paleontology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blind, W., 1975, Über die Entstehung und Funktion der Lobenlinie bei Ammonoideen, Paläontol. Z. 49: 254–267.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blind, W., 1980, Über Anlage und Ausformung von Cephalopoden-Septen, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 160: 217–240.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyajian, G., and Lutz, T., 1992, Evolution of biological complexity and its relation to taxonomic longevity in the Ammonoidea, Geology 20: 983–986.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buckman, S. S., 1919–1921, Type Ammonites,Vol. III, Buckman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Checa, A., 1986, Interrelated structural variations in Physodoceratinae (Aspidoceratidae, Ammonitina), N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1986: 16–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Checa, A., 1991, Sectorial expansion and shell morphogenesis in molluscs, Lethaia 24: 97–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Checa, A., and Sandoval, J., 1989, Septal retraction in Jurassic Ammonitina, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1989: 193–211.

    Google Scholar 

  • Damiani, G., 1986, Significato funzionalle dell’evoluzione dei setti e delle linee di sutura dei nautiloidi e degli ammonoidi, in: Atti I Cony. Int., Fossili, Evoluzione, Ambiente, Pergola, 1984 ( G. Pallini, ed.), Tecnoscienza, Roma, pp. 123–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Damiani, G., 1990. Computer simulation of some ammonoid suture lines, in: Atti II Cony. Int., Fossili, Evoluzione, Ambiente, Pergola, 1987 ( G. Pallini, F. Cecca, S. Cresta, and M. Santantonio, eds.), Tecnostampa, Ostra Vetere, pp. 221–228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denton, E. J., 1974, On buoyancy and lives of modern and fossil cephalopods. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B [Biol. Sci.] 185: 273–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Denton, E. J., and Gilpin-Brown, J. B., 1966, On the buoyancy of the pearly Nautilus, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 46: 365–381.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denton, E. J., and Gilpin-Brown, J. B., 1973, Floatation mechanisms in modern and fossil cephalopods, Adv. Mar. Biol. 11: 197–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Doguzhayeva, L., and Mutvei, H., 1986, Retro-and prochoanitic septal necks in ammonoids, and transition between them, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 195 (1–3): 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drushchits, V. V., and Doguzhayeva, L. A., 1974, Some morphogenetic characteristics of phylloceratids and lytoceratids (Ammonoidea), Paleontol. J. 8 (1): 37–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durand-Delga, M., 1954, À propos de «Bochianites» superstes Perv.: Remarques sur les ammonites droites du Crétacé inférieur, C. R. Somm. Seances Soc. Geol. Fr. 7: 134–137.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erben, H., and Reid, R. E. H., 1971, Ultrastructure of shell, origin of conellae and siphuncular membranes of an ammonite, Biomineralization 3: 22–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feder, J., 1988, Fractals, Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • García-Ruiz, J. M., 1992, “Peacock” viscous fingers, Nature 356:113.

    Google Scholar 

  • García-Ruiz, J. M., 1993, Natural viscous fingering, in: Growth Patterns in Physical Sciences and Biology ( J. M. García-Ruiz, E. Louis, P. Meakin, and L. M. Sander, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 183–189.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • García-Ruiz, J. M., and Checa, A., 1993, A model for the morphogenesis of ammonoid septal sutures, Geobios Mém. Spéc. 15: 157–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • García-Ruiz, J. M., and Otâlora, E, 1994, Uso de la geometria fractal en las ciencias naturales, Epsilon (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  • García-Ruiz, J. M., Checa, A., and Rivas, P., 1990, On the origin of ammonite sutures, Paleobiology 16: 349–354.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guex, J., 1981, Associations virtuelles et discontinuités dans la distribution des espèces fossiles: Un exemple intéressant. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat. 75: 179–197.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haniel, C. A., 1915, VI. Die Cephalopoden der Dyas von Timor, in: Paläontologie von Timor ( J. Wanner, ed.), E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, pp. 1–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henderson, R. A., 1984, A muscle attachment proposal for septal function in Mesozoic ammonites, Palaeontology 27: 461–486.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt, R. A., 1985, Numerical aspects of sutural ontogeny in the Ammonitina and Lytoceratina, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 170: 273–290.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt, R. A., and Westermann, G. E. G., 1987, Function of complexly fluted septa in ammonoid shells. II. Septal evolution and conclusions, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 174: 135–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hewitt, R. A., Checa, A., Westermann, G. E. G., and Zaborski, P. M. P., 1991, Chamber growth in ammonites inferred from colour markings and naturally etched surfaces of Cretaceous vascoceratids from Nigeria. Lethaia 24: 271–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hölder, H., 1954, Über die Sipho-Anheftung bei Ammoniten, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1954: 372–379.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hölder, H., 1955, Die Ammoniten-Gattung Taramelliceras im Süddeutschen unter-und Mittel-malm, Palaeontogr. Abt. A 106: 37–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • John, R., 1909, Über dieLebensweise und Organisation des Ammoniten, Inaug.-Diss., Universität Tübingen, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jordan, R., 1968, Zur Anatomie mesozoischer Ammoniten nach den Strukturelementen der Gehäuseinnenwand, Geol. Jahrb. Beih. 77: 1–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Korvin, G., 1992, Fractal Models in Earth Sciences, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kulicki, C., 1974, Remarks on the embryogeny and postembryonal development of ammonites. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 19: 201–224.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kulicki, C., 1979, The ammonite shell: Its structure, development and functional significance, Palaeontol. Pol. 39: 97–142.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kulicki, C., and Mutvei, H., 1982, Ultrastructure of the siphonal tube in Quenstedtoceras (Ammonitina), Stockholm Contrib. Geol. 37: 129–138.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landman, N. H., 1988, Heterochrony in ammonites, in: Heterochrony ( M. L. McKinney, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 159–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landman, N. H., and Bandel, K., 1985, Internal structures in the early whorls of Mesozoic ammonites, Amer. Mus. Novit. 2823: 1–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Landman, N. H., and Waage, K. M., 1986, Shell abnormalities in scaphitid ammonites, Lethaia 19: 211–224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Landman, N. H., Tanabe, K., Mapes, R. H., Klofak, S. M., and Whitehill, J., 1993, Pseudosutures in Paleozoic ammonoids, Lethaia 26: 99–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lenormand, R., 1985, Différents mechanismes de déplacements visqueuses et capillaires en milieux poreux: Diagramme des phases, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. II 301: 247–250.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lominadze, T. A., Sharikadzé, M. Z., and Kvantaliani. I. V., 1993, On mechanism of soft body movement within body chamber in ammonites, Geobios Mém. Spéc. 15: 267–273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Long, C. A., 1985, Intrincate sutures as fractal curves, J. Morphol. 185: 285–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Longley, P. A., and Batty, M., 1989, Fractal measurements and line generalization, Comput. Geosci. 15: 167–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mandelbrot, B. B., 1982, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, A. K., Furnish, W. M., and Schindewolf, O. H., 1957, Paleozoic Ammonoidea, in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L, Mollusco 4 ( R. C. Moore, ed.), Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, KS, pp. 11–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mutvei, H., 1975, The mode of life in ammonoids, Paläontol. Z. 49: 196–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owen, R., 1832, Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus, Royal College of Surgeons, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peitgen, H. O., Jürgens, H., and Saupe, D., 1992, Fractals for the Classroom. Part I, Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Pfaff, E., 1911, Über Form und Bau der Ammonitensepten und ihre Beziehungen sur Suturlinie. Niedersachs. Geol. Vereins Hannover 4: 207–223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reif, W.-E., Thomas. R. D. K., and Fischer, M. S., 1985, Constructional morphology: The analysis of constraints in evolution, Acta Biotheor. 34: 233–248.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rieber, H., 1979, Eine abnorme, stark vereinfachte Lobenlinie bei Brasilia decipiens (Buckman). Paläotontol. Z. 53: 230–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruzhentshev, V. Y., 1963, Theory of phylogenetic systematics (Part 2 of 4), Int. Geol. Rev. 5: 915–944.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saunders, W. B., 1984, Nautilus growth and longevity: Evidence from marked and recaptured animals, Science 224: 990–992.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schindewolf, O. H., 1965, Studien zur Stammesgeschichte der Ammoniten. Lieferung IV. Akad. bliss. Lit. Mainz Abh. Math. Natur. Kl. 1965: 407–508.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, M., 1925, Ammonitestudien, Fortschr. Geol. Paläont. 10: 275–363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seilacher, A., 1973, Fabricational noise in adaptive morphology, Syst. Zool. 22: 451–465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seilacher, A., 1975. Mechanische Simulation und funktionelle Evolution des Ammoniten-Septurns, Paläontol. Z. 49: 268–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seilacher, A.. 1988, Why are nautiloid and ammonites so different? N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 177: 41–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Senior, J. R., 1971, Wrinkle-layer structures in Jurassic ammonites, Palaeontology 14: 107–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solger, F., 1901, Die Lebensweise der Ammoniten, Naturw. Wochenschr. 17: 89–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spath, L. F., 1919, Notes on ammonites, Geol. Mag. 61: 27–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stanley, E. H., 1987, Role of fluctuations in fluid mechanics and dendritic solidification, in: The Physics of Structure Formation ( W. Guttinger and H. Dangelmayr, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 210–243.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Swinnerton, H. H., and Trueman, A. E., 1918, The morphology and development of the ammonite septum, Q. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 53: 26–58.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanabe, K., 1977, Functional evolution of Otoscaphites puerculus (limbo) and Scaphites plan us (Yabe), Upper Cretaceous ammonites. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. D 23: 367–407.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tanabe, K., Landman, N. H., and Weitschat, W., 1993, Septal necks in Mesozoic Ammonoidea: Structure, ontogenetic development, and evolution, in: The Ammonoidea: Environment, Ecology, and Evolutionary Change, Syst. Assoc. Spec. Vol. 47 ( M. R. House, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 57–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tate, R., and Blake, J. F., 1876, The Yorkshire Lias,London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, D’A. W., 1942, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Damme, H., 1989, Flow and interfacial instabilities in newtonian and colloidal fluids, in: The Fractal Approach to Heterogeneous Chemistry ( D. Avnir, ed.), John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vicencio, R., 1973, Models for the Morphology and Morphogenesis of the Ammonoid Shell, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, McMaster Univ.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vogel, K. P., 1959, Zwergwuchs bei Polyptychiten (Ammonoidea), Geol. Jahrb. 76: 469–540.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wainwright, S. A., Biggs, W. D., Currey, J. D., and Gosline, J. M., 1976, Mechanical Design in Organisms, Edward Arnold, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ward, P. D., 1987, The Natural History of Nautilus, Allen and Unwin, Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ward, P. D., and Westermann, G. E. G., 1976, Sutural inversion in a heteromorph ammonite and its implication for septal formation, Lethaia 9: 357–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weitschat, W., 1986, Phosphatisierte Ammonoideen aus der Mittleren Trias von Central-Spitzbergen, Mitth. Geol. Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Hamburg 61: 249–279.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weitschat, W., and Bandel, K., 1991, Organic components in phragmocones of Boreal Triassic ammonoids: Implications for ammonoid biology, Paläontol. Z. 65: 269–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G. E. G., 1954, Monographie der Otoitidae (Ammonoidea). Geol. Jahrb. Beih. 15: 1–364.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G. E. G., 1956, Phylogenie der Stephanocerataceae und Perisphinctaceae des Dogger. N. Jb. Geol. Paldont. Abh. 103: 233–279.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G. E. G., 1958, The significance of septa and sutures in Jurassic ammonite systematics, Geol. Mag. 95: 441–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G. E. G., 1971, Form structure and function of shell and siphuncle in coiled Mesozoic ammonoids, Life Sci. Contrib. R. Ont. Mus. 78: 1–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G E G,1975, Model for origin, function and fabrication of fluted cephalopod septa, Paläontol. Z. 49: 235–253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G. E. G., 1982, The connecting rings of Nautilus and Mesozoic ammonoids: Implications for ammonite bathymetry, Lethaia 15: 373–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westermann, G E G, 1992, Formation and function of suspended organic cameral sheets in Triassic ammonoids -discussion, Paläontol. Z. 66: 437–441.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiedmann, J., and Kullmann, J., 1980, Ammonoid sutures in ontogeny and phylogeny, in: The Ammonoidea, Systematics Association Special Volume 18 ( M. R. House and J. R. Senior, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 215–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zaborski, P. M. P., 1986, Internal mould markings in a Cretaceous ammonite from Nigeria, Palaeontology 29: 725–738.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1996 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Checa, A.G., Garcia-Ruiz, J.M. (1996). Morphogenesis of the Septum in Ammonoids. In: Landman, N.H., Tanabe, K., Davis, R.A. (eds) Ammonoid Paleobiology. Topics in Geobiology, vol 13. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9153-2_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9153-2_9

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4757-9155-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-9153-2

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics