Molecular Biology of Catecholamine Systems: Multiple Tyrosine Hydroxylases in Different Simian Species, and in Humans in Relation to Parkinson’s Disease
The main biochemical characteristics of Parkinson’s disease are the reduction of dopamine the neurotransmitter, and of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the biopterin cofactor, the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme system, in the nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. A deficiency in the dopamine-synthesizing enzymes is accompanied by cell loss of the nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, which is assumed to be caused by unknown exogenous, environmental factors and endogenous, genetic factors. Not only the nigrostriatal dopamine neurons but also other catecholamine neurons may be impaired, as suggested by decreases in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) in norepinephrine neurons and phenylethanolamine Nmethyltransferase (PNMT) in epinephrine neurons (Nagatsu et al., 1977; Nagatsu et al., 1984).
KeywordsTyrosine Hydroxylase Splice Site Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Norepinephrine Neuron Catecholamine Neuron
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