Advertisement

Neuronal Grafting in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Per Odin
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 44)

Abstract

The clinical trials with neural transplantation in patients with Parkinson’s disease are based on 15 years of grafting studies in animal models of this disorder. In these models, the mesostriatal dopamine system is destroyed by a neurotoxin (6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)), which leads to a severe depletion of striatal dopamine levels. It has been shown both in rats and in monkeys that fetal neural grafts, rich in dopamine neurons, taken from the ventral mesencephalon and implanted into the dopamine-denervated striatum, can reinnervate the host striatum, form morphologically normal synaptic contacts with host neurons, release dopamine and improve motor and sensorimotor deficits, including the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia (Dunnett, 1991; Freed, 1991). Also human fetal dopamine neurons implanted into the rat parkinson model reinnervate the striatum, release dopamine and improve motor deficits. However, this symptomatic recovery is not complete — all deficits in animals are not reversed by neural grafts.

Keywords

Dopamine Neuron Ventral Mesencephalon Striatal Dopamine Level Parkinsonian Brain Neural Graft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brundin, P., and Lindvall, O., 1993, Transplantation in Parkinson’s disease, in: “Restoration of brain function by tissue transplantation”, O. Lindvall, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  2. Dunnett, S.B., 1991, Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons: what we know from rats, J Neurol. 238: 65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Freed, W.J., 1991, Substantia nigra grafts and Parkinson’s disease: from animal experiments to human therapeutic trials, Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 3: 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Lindvall, O., Widner, H., Rehncrona, S., Brundin, P., Odin, P., Gustavii, B., Frackowiak, R., Le-enders, K.L., Sawle, G., Bothwell, J.C., Björklund, A., and Marsden, C.D., 1992, Transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s diseQsn: 1-year clinical and neurophysiological observations in two patients with putaminal implants, Ann. Neurol. 31: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lindvall, O., Sawle, G., Widner, H., Bothwell, J.C., Björkund, A., Brooks, D., Brundin, P., Frackowiak, R., Marsden, C.D., Odin, P., and Rehncrona, S., 1993, Evidence for long term survival and function of dopaminergic grafts in progressive Parkinson’s disease, Ann. Neurol.,in press.Google Scholar
  6. Sawle, G.V., Bloomfield, P.M., Björklund, A., Brooks, D.J., Brundin, P., Leenders, K.L., Lindvall, O., Marsden, C.D., Rehncrona, S., Widner, H., and Frackowiak, R.S.J., 1992, Transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s diseACe: positron emission tomography (’8F)-6-L-fluorodopa studies in two patients with putaminal implants, Ann. Neurol. 31: 166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Widner, H., Tetrud, J., Rehncrona, S., Snow, B., Brundin, P., Gustavii, B., Björklund, A., Lindvall, O., and Langston, J.W., 1992, Bilateral fetal mesencephalic grafting in two patients with parkinsonism induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP), N. Eng. J. Med. 327: 1556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Odin
    • 1
  1. 1.Restorative Neurology Unit Department of NeurologyUniversity HospitalLundSweden

Personalised recommendations