Parkinson’s Disease: Biometrics Towards Nature-Nurture Puzzles

  • Kiyotaro Kondo
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 44)


Degenerative neurological diseases in the elderly may be the final consequences of a lifelong interaction of genes and environmental factors, which influenced survival of neurons in the functional-anatomical system of the brain. Not only neurotoxins, but lifestyles that modify each specific neurodegeneration are important problems to be evaluated. This study analyzes Parkinson-prone lifestyles with an emphasis on lifelong behavioral patterns. It is likely that such lifestyles increase the risk if combined with the particular susceptible genotypes, but this area is yet to be explored.


Susceptible Genotype Motor Milestone Fair Skin Motor Growth Degenerative Neurological Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Golbe, L.I., Farrel, T.M., and Davis, P.H., 1988, Case-control study of early life dietary factors in Parkinson’s disease, Arch. Neurol. 45: 1350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kondo, K., 1986, Epidemiological evaluation of risk factors in Parkinson’s disease, In: “Parkinson Disease”, M.D.Yahr and K.J. Bergmann, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Kondo, K., 1990, Risk factors to Parkinson’s disease; heritability and life style, In: “Basic, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease”, T. Nagatsu, ed., Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Kondo, K., Kurland, L.T., and Schull, W.J., 1973, Parkinson’s disease: genetic analysis and evidence of multifactorial etiology, Mayo Clin. Proc. 48: 465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kondo K., and Watanabe, K, 1993, Lifestyles, risk factors and inherited predispositions in Parkinson’s disease: preliminary report of a case-control study, In: “Parkinson’s Disease from Basic Research to Treatment”, H. Narabayashi, T. Nagatsu, N. Yanagisawa, and Y. Yoshida, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Ward, C.D., Duviosin, R.C., Ince, S.E., Nutt, J.D., Eldridge, R., and Calne, D.B., 1983, Parkinson’s disease in 65 pairs of twins and in a case of quadruplets, Neurology 33: 815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Watanabe, K., 1994, A case-control study of Parkinson’s disease, Jpn. J. Publ. Hlth. (Jpn) 41: 22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyotaro Kondo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public HealthHokkaido UniversitySapporo, 060Japan

Personalised recommendations