A Comprehensive Eulerian Modeling Framework for Airborne Mercury Species: Development and Testing of the Tropospheric Chemistry Module (TCM)

  • G. Petersen
  • J. Munthe
  • K. Pleijel
  • R. Bloxam
  • A. Vinod Kumar
Part of the NATO • Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 22)

Abstract

In recent years there has been a revival of interest in mercury as an atmospheric pollutant on local, regional and global geographical scales. An important indicator of increasing interest regarding mercury species in Europe’s atmosphere is the recent decision of the UN-ECE to prepare a protocol for heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants under its co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants (EMEP) with mercury as a priority substance. In North America, the 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments have identified mercury as one of the trace substances listed in the legislation as “hazardous air pollutants” because of its potentially significant effects on ecosystems and human health.

Keywords

Mercury Europe Ozone Sulfite HgCl 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bloom N.S., Prestbo E.M. and Von der Geest E. (1996) Determination of atmospheric gaseous Hg(II) at the pg/m3 level by collection onto cation exchange membranes, followed by dual amalgamation/cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry, Fourth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Book of Abstracts, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Strasse, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.Google Scholar
  2. Ebinghaus R., Kock H.H. Jennings S.G., McCartin P. and Orren M.J. (1995) Measurements of atmospheric mercury concentrations in northwestern and central Europe-Comparison of experimental data and model results, Atmospheric Environment 29, 3333–3344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hall B. (1995) The gas phase oxidation of elemental mercury by ozone, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 80, 301–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Iverfeldt A. (1991) Occurrence and turnover of atmospheric mercury over the nordic countries, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 56, 251–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kessler E. (1969) On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substances in Atmospheric Circulation, Meteorological Monographs 10, No. 32, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass.02108, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  6. Munthe J., Xiao Z.F. and Lindqvist O. (1991) The aqueous reduction of divalent mercury by sulfite, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 56, 621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Munthe J. (1992) The aqueous oxidation of elemental Mercury by ozone, Atmospheric Environment 26A, 1461–1468.Google Scholar
  8. Petersen G., Iverfeldt A. and Munthe J. (1995) Atmospheric mercury species over Central and Northern Europe. Model calculations and comparison with observations from the nordic air and precipitation network for 1987 and 1988, Atmospheric Environment 29, No. 1, 47–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Petcrsen G., Munthe J., Bloxam R. and Vinod Kumar A. (1997) A comprehensive Eulerian modelling framework for airborne mercury species: development and testing of a Tropospheric Chemistry Module (TCM), Atmospheric Environment-Special Issue on Atmospheric Transport, Chemistry, and Deposition of Mercury (edited by S.E. Lindberg, G. Petersen and G. Keeler) (in press).Google Scholar
  10. Pleijel K. and Munthe J. (1995a) Modelling the atmospheric mercury cycle-chemistry in fog droplets, Atmospheric Environment 29, No. 12, 1441–1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pleijel K. and Munthe J. (1995b) Modeling the Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury-The importance of a detailed description of the chemistry in cloud water. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 80, 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Raymond D.J. and Blyth A.M. (1986) A stocastic mixing model for nonprecipitating cumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 2708–2718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Venkatram A., Karamchandani P.K. and Misra P.K. (1988) Testing a comprehensive acid deposition model, Atmospheric Environment 22, 737–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Xiao Z.F., Sommar J., Wei S. and Lindqvist O. (1996) Sampling and determination of gas phase divalent mercury with KCl coated denuders, Fourth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Book of Abstracts, GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Strasse, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Petersen
    • 1
  • J. Munthe
    • 2
  • K. Pleijel
    • 2
  • R. Bloxam
    • 3
  • A. Vinod Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.GKSS Research CentreInstitute of HydrophysicsGeesthachtGermany
  2. 2.Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL)GöteborgSweden
  3. 3.Science and Technology BranchOntario Ministry of Environment and EnergyTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Environmental Assessment DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations