Advertisement

Temporal and Spatial Scales for Transport and Transformation Processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

  • G. Kallos
  • V. Kotroni
  • K. Lagouvardos
  • A. Papadopoulos
  • M. Varinou
  • O. Kakaliagou
  • M. Luria
  • M. Peleg
  • A. Wanger
  • M. Uliasz
Part of the NATO • Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 22)

Abstract

In several studies during the past, the urban plumes have been extensively considered. In these studies, the spatial and temporal scales of episodic conditions have been described and emphasis was given to the formation and evolution of air pollution episodes within city limits (or in an area covering a few tens of kilometers around the city) and for a time period of one to two days. Moreover, the weather phenomena exhibiting strong diurnal variations (e. g. sea/land-breezes, upslope/downslope and drainage flows, orographic effects, heat islands etc.) were emphasized. The influence of the regional scale phenomena in such cases was not considered on a systematic manner. Actually, the role of phenomena with wavelengths larger than a few tens of kilometers was considered as not important for the formation of a specific air quality over the city of consideration. During the last few years, the influence of regional scale forcing on the formation of specific air quality conditions was found to be important. Kallos et al. (1993) reported that the regional scale phenomena should contribute significantly in the formation of specific air quality conditions in the Greater Athens Area (GAA). Luria et al. (1996) showed that significant degradation of the air quality in some areas should be attributed to regional scale transport phenomena. While the physicochemical properties of various urban plumes have been described at the urban scale with the aid of organized experimental campaigns and/or mesoscale and photochemical modeling (e. g. Ziomas, 1996), not enough attention was paid to the properties of the urban plume as it is passing to areas relatively far from its origin. Consequently, the urban plume impact on remote locations has not been extensively studied. Such phenomena should be considered as very important in some cases, especially in areas with specific characteristics like the Mediterranean Region.

Keywords

Middle East Marine Boundary Layer Regional Atmospheric Modelling System Airborne Measurement Great Athens Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Kallos, G., P. Kassomenos, and R.A. Pielke, 1993: Synoptic and mesoscale weather conditions during air pollution episodes in Athens, Greece. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 62, 163–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kallos, G., Kotroni V., Lagouvardos K., and Varinou M., A. Papadopoulos, 1995: South European Cycles of Air Pollution(SECAP). Final Report prepared for the DGXII, EU.Google Scholar
  3. Kallos, G., Kotroni V., Lagouvardos K., and Varinou M., M. Luria, M. Peleg, G. Sharf, V. Matveev, D. Alper-SimanTov, A. Vanger, G Tuncel, S. Tuncel, N. Aras, G. Gullu, M. Idrees, F. Al-Momani, 1996a: Transport and Transformation of Air Pollutants from Europe to the East Mediterranean. Environmental Research Program AVICENNE. Final Report for the DGXII of EU. Pp 352.Google Scholar
  4. Kallos G., V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, M. Varinou, and A. Papadopoulos, 1996b: “Possible mechanisms for long range transport in the eastern Mediterranean” Proc. of the 21st NATO/CCMS Int. Techn. Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, 6–10 November, Baltimore, USA, pp.99-107.Google Scholar
  5. Luma ML, M. Peleg, G. Sharf, D. Siman Tov-Alper, N. Schpitz, Y. Ben Ami, Z. Gawi, B. Lifschitz, A. Yitzchaki, and I. Seter, 1996: Atmospheric Sulphur over the East Mediterranean region. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 25917–25930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Meteorological Office, 1962: Weather in the Mediterranean. Vol. I, General Meteorology H.M. Stat. Office, London. Second Edition.Google Scholar
  7. Millan, M., B. Artinano, L. Alonso, M. Castro, R. Fernandez-Patier and J. Goberna, 1992: Mesometeorological Cycles of Air Pollution in the Iberian Peninsula. Final Report for the DGXII of EU. Pp 219.Google Scholar
  8. Pielke, R.A., W.R. Cotton, R.L. Walko, C.J. Tremback, W.A. Lyons, L.D. Grasso, M.E. Nicholls, M.D. Moran, D.A. Wesley, T.J. Lee, and J.H. Copeland, 1992: A comprehensive meteorological modelling system-RAMS. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 49, 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tremback, C.J., W.A. Lyons, W.P. Thorson, and R.L. Walko, 1993: An emergency response and local weather forecasting software system. Preproceedings of the 20th ITM on Air Pollution and its Application, November 29–December 3, 1993. Valencia, Spain. pp 8.Google Scholar
  10. Ziomas, I., 1996: Mediterranean Campaign of Photochemical Tracers-Transport and Chemical Evolution (MEDCAPHOT-TRACE): An outline. Atmos. Environ. (accepted for publication).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Kallos
    • 1
  • V. Kotroni
    • 1
  • K. Lagouvardos
    • 1
  • A. Papadopoulos
    • 1
  • M. Varinou
    • 1
  • O. Kakaliagou
    • 1
  • M. Luria
    • 2
  • M. Peleg
    • 2
  • A. Wanger
    • 2
  • M. Uliasz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Applied Physics, Meteorology LaboratoryUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.School of Applied ScienceThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.Department of Atmospheric ScienceColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations