The Biological Significance of Carbohydrate — Lysine Crosslinking During Heat — Treatment of Food Proteins

  • Helmut F. Erbersdobler
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 86)


The heating of proteins in the presence of glucose or lactose results in the formation of fructoselysine or lactuloselysine (galactose-fructoselysine), in which the sugars are linked at the ε-amino group of lysine. Both compounds, which are very unstable to acid hydrolysis, can be estimated by analysing furosine, which is formed during the hydrolysis with strong hydrochloric acid. With this useful indicator it could be shown that the fructoselysine group occurs in considerable amounts in many heat-damaged foods.

Results of balance trials with casein containing radioactive labeled fructoselysine indicate a 30–40 % release of fructoselysine by digestion. Fructoselysine or lactuloselysine escaping the digestion and absorption are destroyed by the microorganisms in the hind gut. Free fructoselysine is not actively transported out of the intestine but absorbed by diffusion. Experiments with pregnant guinea pigs have shown a rapid penetration in large amounts through the placental wall. Our results indicate that fructoselysine does not interfere with the physiological and metabolic functions of the organism. The intestinal absorption of short-chain amino acids seems to be affected by the presence of fructose-lysine. Fructoselysine is rapidly excreted by the kidneys as an intact molecule


Maillard Reaction Isobutyric Acid Free Lysine Amino Isobutyric Acid Furosine Content 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut F. Erbersdobler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Physiology, Physiological Chemistry and Physiology of Nutrition. Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of MunichMünchen 22Germany

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