Wing Venation Variability in Monarthropalpus buxi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) and the Quaternary Coevolution of Box (Buxus sempervirens L.) and Its Midge

A Geometrical Morphometric Analysis
  • Michel Baylac
  • Tanguy Daufresne
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 284)


The variability of the wing venation of the box midge, Monarthropalpus buxi, here characterized by six landmarks, is analyzed by geometrical morphometrics. Four localities in France were sampled, covering the northern disjunction in the distribution of box shrubs in Europe. Within- and between-locality analyses indicate that the southern locality is completely separated from the central, western and northern ones. This supports the hypothesis of Parent (1980), who considered the isolated box localities of the northern part of France and Germany to be relicts from the ice age, and is consistent with a close coevolution of box and its midge.

No differences were found between the parti- and univoltine populations of the midge. This result confirms that the dual life cycle of the species is a simple adaptation, originating perhaps during the ice age, but without taxonomic implications.

Sexual dimorphism involves a strong uniform component which corresponds to a stretching of the wing in the male sex, together with a nonuniform expansion of the medial area.


Sexual Dimorphism Mahalanobis Distance Gall Midge Centroid Size Canonical Axis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Baylac
    • 1
  • Tanguy Daufresne
    • 1
  1. 1.Muséum National d’Histoire NaturelleLaboratoire d’EntomologieParisFrance

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