Advertisement

Thermodynamic Analysis and Operating Experience of the Nuclotron Helium Refrigerators in the “Satellite” Mode

  • N. N. Agapov
  • H. G. Khodzhibagiyan
  • A. D. Kovalenko
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)

Abstract

The cryogenic system for the superconducting synchrotron Nuclotron consists of 3 – 1,600 W refrigerators operating at 4.5 K. Since the Nuclotron only requires the output of 2 of these refrigerators, a distribution system based on the “satellite” refrigerator concept was developed to maximize reliability of the overall refrigeration system while simultaneously maintaining a high level of system efficiency. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of, and the experimental data for, the Nuclotron refrigerators operating in the “satellite” mode.

Keywords

Heat Exchanger Liquid Helium Refrigeration System Refrigeration Temperature Cryogenic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Nomenclature

e0

specific exergy of liquid helium, J/g

F

surface of the heat exchanger, m2

G

compressed gas flow g/sec

g

compressed gas flow per unit refrigeration capacity, (g/ sec)/W

i

enthalpy of high pressure stream at a certain position, J/g

in

enthalpy of helium at the cycle position “n”, J/g

k

heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2 K)

p3

compressor inlet pressure, MPa

p4

compressor outlet pressure, MPa

Q

refrigeration capacity, W

R

gas constant of helium, J/(g K)

r

heat of boiling, J/g

Ta

ambient temperature, K

x

mass vapor content of the stream

α

liquid helium flow per unit compressed gas flow (coefficient of surplus return flow)

Δis

enthalpy reduction of the isentropic expansion, J/g

ΔT

temperature difference between high and low pressure streams at a certain position, K

ε

total power expense per unit of refrigeration capacity

εα

liquefaction work of the independent liquefier

εg

compression work

ηc

isothermal efficiency of compressor

ηLHe

efficiency of the independent helium liquefaction unit

ηs

isentropic efficiency of the expander

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.M. Baldin, et al., Cryogenic system of the Nuclotron — a new superconducting synchrotron, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering,” Vol. 39. Plenum Press, New York (1994). p. 501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Agapov, et al., Development & operating experience of the Nuclotron cryogenic system, in: Proc. of the 16th Int. Cryogenic Eng. Conf., Kitakyushu (1996). p. 139.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Theilacker, et al., Commissioning of the Tevatron satellite refrigeration system, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.” Vol. 29. Plenum Press. New York (1984). p. 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Grassmann and J. Kopp, Zur gunstigsten Wahl der Temperaturdifferenz und der Warmeubergangszahl in Warmeaustauschern, Kaltetechnik. 10:306 (1957).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. I. Dyachkov, H. G. Khodhzibagiyan, and VN. Kuzichev. A satellite refrigerator for testing superconducting magnets with a forced cooling system, in: Proc. of the 10th Int. Cryogenic Eng. Conf., Helsinki (1984), p. 735.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.M. Baldin. et al., Superconducting fast cycling magnets of the Nuclotron. in: IEEE Transactions on applied superconductivity, v. 5. No 2 (1995), p. 875.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. N. Agapov
    • 1
  • H. G. Khodzhibagiyan
    • 1
  • A. D. Kovalenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Joint Institute for Nuclear ResearchDubna, Moscow regionRussia

Personalised recommendations