Visualization Study of Oscillating Flow Inside a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

  • N. Nakamura
  • M. Shiraishi
  • K. Seo
  • M. Murakami
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)


The flow inside typical pulse tube refrigerators which are a basic, an orifice and a double inlet type, has been observed by the visualization technique to investigate the effects of opening of the orifice and the bypass valves. A smoke-wire and a tuft flow visualization techniques are adopted. The displacement and the velocity of the working gas at cold end, middle of the pulse tube and in the bypass tube are measured by changing the valve openings and the flow is classified into 8 typical flow patterns. It is found that the flow pattern in the pulse tube is changed by the opening of the orifice and bypass valves. In the orifice type, phase difference between the pressure and the displacement increases as the increase of the orifice valve opening. It has maximum value at the optimum opening of the orifice valve. In the double inlet type, phase difference does not so change, but the flow behavior in the pulse tube is different from that of the orifice type.


Phase Difference Pressure Oscillation Valve Opening Pulse Tube Bypass Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gifford, W. E. and Longsworth, R. C., Pulse-tube refrigeration, ASME paper, No.63-WA-290 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Nisenoff, F. Patten and S. A. Wolf, And What about Cryogenic Refrigeration?, “Cryocoolers 9,” Plenum Press, New York (1997), p. 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee, J. M., Kittel, P., Timmerhaus, K. D. and Radebough, R., Flow patterns intrinsic to the pulse tube refrigerator, “Proceedings of the 7th International Cryocooler Conference,” PL-CP-93–1001, Santa Fe (1993), p. 125.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Shiraishi, N. Nakamura, K. Seo and M. Murakami, Investigation of Velocity Profiles in Oscillating Flows Inside a Pulse Tube Refrigerator, “Proceedings of the 16th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference,” Elsevier, Kitakyushu Japan (1996), pp. 255–259.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Shiraishi, N. Nakamura, K. Seo and M. Murakami, Visualization Study of Velocity Profiles and Displacements of Working Gas Inside a Pulse Tube Refrigerator, “Cryocoolers 9,” Plenum Press, New York (1997), p. 355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Nakamura
    • 1
  • M. Shiraishi
    • 2
  • K. Seo
    • 3
  • M. Murakami
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Engineering MechanicsUniversity of TsukubaTsukuba, Ibaraki, 305Japan
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering LaboratoryMinistry of International Trade and IndustryTsukuba, Ibaraki, 305Japan
  3. 3.Faculty of EducationYamagata UniversityYamagata, 990Japan

Personalised recommendations