Monolithic Regenerator Technology for Low Temperature (4 K) Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers
A two-stage Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler has been selected to produce and maintain the low temperatures required by the superconducting magnet system in an active magnetic regenerative liquefier (AMRL). The operation of practical AMRLs requires relatively large magnetic fields (e.g., 8 T). Currently, these fields can only be produced via low-temperature superconducting magnets that typically operate at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K).
Until a few years ago, obtaining non-zero cooling powers below 10 K was impossible with regenerative cryocoolers. This is mainly because the volumetric heat capacity of pressurized helium (the working fluid) is much higher than the corresponding value for lead (the material commonly used in low temperature regenerators). Several teams have successfully modified GM cryocoolers to reach temperatures < 4 K with specially manufactured second-stage regenerators. The authors have successfully modified a commercial two-stage GM cryogenic refrigerator to reduce its minimum, no-load temperature from 6.1 ± 0.1 K to 3.42 ± 0.05 K at a nominal operating frequency of 1.2 Hz. This was accomplished by using a monolithic regenerator that is relatively simple to manufacture. The cooling power at 4.2 ±0.1 K was measured to be 0.43 W with zero thermal load at the first stage. The superconducting magnets in our AMRL have been designed to operate at 4.5 K. The refrigeration power available at this temperature was measured to be 0.50 ± 0.01 W with a simultaneous first-stage load of approximately 20 W at 42.8 ± 0.5 K.
KeywordsLiquid Helium Temperature Cooling Power Pressurize Helium Regenerator Material Volumetric Heat Capacity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.T. Hashimoto, R. Li and K. Matsumoto, “Recent Progress in the Magnetic Materials for Regenerator in the Range from 4.2 K to 20 K”, Proceedings of the International Cryogenic Materials Conference, China (1988).Google Scholar
- 4.Onishi, A., Li, R., Satoh, T., Kanawaza, H., Aikawa, S., Hashimoto, T., “A 4 K GM Cryocooler with Hybrid Regenerator of Magnetic Materials”, Proceedings of the 7th International Cryocooler Conference, Santa Fe, NM (November 17–19, 1992).Google Scholar
- 5.Yabuki, M., Nitta, H., Hashimot, T., Kuriyama, T., Takahashi, M., Nakagome, H., “Magnetic Regenerator material in the Liquid Helium Temperature Range — Recent Advances and its possibility”, Proceedings of the 4th Joint Sino-Japanese Seminar on Cryocoolers and Concerned Topics”, Beijing, P.R. China (October 19–23, 1993).Google Scholar
- 6.Kuriyama, T., Takahashi, M., Nakagome, H., Hashimoto, H., Nitta, H., Yabuki, M., “Development of 1 Watt Class 4 K GM Refrigerator with Magnetic Materials”, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 39b. pp. 1335–1342, Plenum Press, New York, USA (1994).Google Scholar
- 7.Tsukagoshi, T., Nitta, H., Yoshida, A., Matsumoto, K., Hashimoto, T., Kuriyama, T., Takahashi, M., Ohtani, Y., Nakagome, H., “Refrigeration Capacity of a GM Refrigerator with Magnetic Regenerator Materials”, Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Columbus, OH, USA (July 17–21, 1995).Google Scholar
- 8.Satoh, T., Onishi, A., Li, R., Asami, H., Kanazawa, Y., “Development of 1.5W 4K GM Cryocooler with Magnetic Regenerator Material”, Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Columbus, OH, USA (July 17–21, 1995).Google Scholar
- 9.Takashi, N. Masashi, N. Kouki and Y. Hideto, “Development of 2W Class 4 K Gifford-McMahon Cycle Cryocooler” (to be published).Google Scholar
- 10.K. A. Gschneidner, Jr., V. K. Pecharsky and M. Gailloux, “New Ternary Lanthanide Regenerator Materials for the Low Temperature Stage of a Gifford-McMahon (G-M) Cryocooler”, Paper presented at the 8th International Cryocooler Conference, Vail, Colorado, USA (June 28–30, 1994).Google Scholar
- 11.Chafe, J., Green, G., Riedy, R. C, “Neodymium Regenerator Test Results in a Standard Gifford-McMahon Refrigerator”, Proceedings of the 7th International Cryocooler conference, Santa Fe, NM, USA (November 17–19, 1992).Google Scholar
- 12.E. M. Ludeman and C. B. Zimm, “Production of Spherical Powders of Rare Earth Intermetallic Compounds for Use in Cryocooler Regenerators”, Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Huntsville, AL, USA (1991).Google Scholar
- 13.Lee, Peter W. (ed.), Powder Metallurgy, American Society for Metals, Metals Handbook Desk Edition, pp. 25.1–25.24(1985).Google Scholar
- 14.M. G. Osborne, I. E. Anderson, K. A. Gschneidner, Jr., M. J. Gailloux, and T. W. Ellis, “Centrifugal Atomization of Neodymium and Er3Ni Regenerator Particulate”, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 39, Plenum Press, New York, USA (1994).Google Scholar
- 15.J. N. Chafe, G. F., Green, and J. B. Hendricks, “A Neodymium Plate Regenerator for Low Temperature Gifford-McMahon Cycle refrigerators”, to be published.Google Scholar
- 16.J. N. Chafe, G. Green, and P. Gifford, “The Low Temperature Performance of a Three Stage Gifford-Mcmahon Cryocooler”, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 37B, p. 1011, Plenum Press, New York, USA (1992).Google Scholar
- 17.Reid, C. E. J., Personal communication, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada (September 1995).Google Scholar
- 18.W.R. Mérida and J. A. Barclay, “Nouvelle Manufacturing Technique for Low Temperature Regenerators”, Submitted for publication in Cryogenics. Google Scholar
- 19.Available from CLAD Metal Industries, 40 Edison Av., Oakland, NJ 07436, USA.Google Scholar