A Review of Cryobiology and Cryosurgery
Cryosurgery is the destruction of tissue by freezing. Modern cryosurgical techniques were first introduced in the mid 1960’s, but, they only achieved modest application in selected medical specialties. This was in part due to limitations in cryosurgical devices which could not address the fundamental factors that influence cell death in response to freezing. It was also due to an inability to accurately assess or predict the growth of the ice ball within the tissue, and more importantly determine the zone of tissue death. Recent advances in liquid nitrogen cryosurgical devices and ultrasound guided cryosurgical techniques have addressed some of these issues, have significantly raised the interest in cryosurgery, and have expanded its application. Newer advances in cryosurgical devices and magnetic resonance imaging have great promise in making cryosurgery a primary therapeutic modality. This paper will review the biologic issues related to the freezing of tissue and their impact on the development of cryosurgical devices, as well as discuss the newest developments at the forefront of cryosurgical applications.
KeywordsCool Rate Rapid Cool Rate Cryogenic Engineer Isothermal Zone Primary Therapeutic Modality
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