Advertisement

Conceptualization and Measurement of Coping in Children and Adolescents

  • Tim S. Ayers
  • Irwin N. Sandler
  • Joan L. Twohey
Part of the Advances in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ACCP, volume 20)

Abstract

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of efforts to conceptualize and measure coping and to examine the role it plays in effecting the development of symptomatology for people in stressful situations (e.g., Billings & Moos, 1981; Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989; Endler & Parker, 1990; Folkman & Lazarus, 1980; McCrae, 1984; Miller, 1987; Pearlin & Schooler, 1978). Although the vast majority of these efforts at conceptualization, measurement, and research have involved adult populations, there has been an increase in the number of studies concerning coping by children or adolescents (e.g., Ayers, Sandler, West, & Roosa, 1996; Band & Weisz, 1988; Brodzinsky, Elias, Steiger, & Simon, 1992; Causey & Dubow, 1992; Compas, Malcarne, & Fondacaro, 1988b; Curry & Russ, 1985; Phelps & Jarvis, 1994; Rossman, 1992; Ryan-Wenger, 1990; Wertlieb, Weigel, & Feldstein, 1987; Zeitlin, 1980).

Keywords

Coping Strategy Coping Style Coping Response Avoidance Coping Cognitive Coping 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldwin, C. M. (1994). Stress, coping, and development: An integrative perspective. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  2. Aldwin, C. M., & Revenson, T. A. (1987). Does coping help? A reexamination of the relation between coping and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altshuler, J. L., & Ruble, D. N. (1989). Developmental changes in children’s awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 1337–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Asarnow, J. R., Carlson, G. A., & Guthrie, D. (1987). Coping strategies, self-perceptions, hopelessness, and perceived family environments in depressed and suicidal children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 361–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Austin, J. K., Patterson, J. M., & Huberty, T. J. (1991). Development of the Coping Health Inventory for Children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 6, 166–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayers, T. S. (1991). A dispositional and situational assessment of children’s coping: Testing alternative theoretical models. Unpublished dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  7. Ayers, T. S., Sandler, I. N., Bernzweig, J. A., Harrison, R. J., Wampler, T. W., & Lustig, J. L. (1989). Handbook for the content analyses of children’s coping responses. Tempe: Program for Prevention Research, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
  8. Ayers, T. S., Sandler, I. N., West, S. G., & Roosa, M. W. (1996). A dispositional and situational assessment of children’s coping: Testing alternative models of coping. Journal of Personality, 64, 923–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1988). How to feel better when it feels bad: Children’s perspectives on coping with everyday stress. Developmental Psychology, 24, 247–253.Google Scholar
  10. Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1990). Developmental differences in primary and secondary control coping and adjustment to juvenile diabetes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 150–158.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  12. Benson, J., & Hagtvet, K. (1996). The interplay among design, data analysis, and theory in the measurement of coping. In N. S. E. Moshe Zeidner (Ed.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 83–106). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 139–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blanchard-Fields, F., & Irion, J. C. (1988). Coping strategies from the perspective of two developmental markers: Age and social reasoning. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 149, 141–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boekaerts, M. (1996). Coping with stress in childhood and adolescence. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 452–484). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Brodzinsky, D. M., Elias, M. J., Steiger, C., & Simon, J. (1992). Coping Scale for Children and Youth: Scale development and validation [Special Issue: Does environment really contribute to healthy, quality life?]. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 195–214.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, J. M., O’Keeffe, J., Sanders, S. H., & Baker, B. (1986). Developmental changes in children’s cognition to stressful and painful situations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11, 343–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bull, B. A., & Drotar, D. (1991). Coping with cancer in remission: Stressors and strategies reported by children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 16, 767–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. E, & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Causey, D. L., & Dubow, E. F. (1992). Development of a self-report coping measure for elementary school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 47–59.Google Scholar
  21. Causey, D. L., & Dubow, E. F. (1993). Negotiating the transition to junior high school: The contributions of coping strategies and perceptions of the school environment. In L. A. Jason, K. E. Danner, & K. S. Kurasaki (Eds.), Prevention and school transitions (Vol. 10, pp. 59–81. New York: Hayworth Press.Google Scholar
  22. Colletta, N. D., Hadler, S., & Gregg, C. H. (1981). How adolescents cope with the problems of early motherhood. Adolescence, 16, 499–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Compas, B. E. (1997, January). Placing coping in context: Effortful and involuntary responses to stress. Paper presented at the Stress and Coping Research with Children: Strengthening the Links between Theory and Intervention meeting. Tempe, AZ.Google Scholar
  25. Compas, B. E., Banez, G. A., Malcarne, V., & Worsham, N. (1991). Perceived control and coping with stress: A developmental perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 47, 23–34.Google Scholar
  26. Compas, B. E., Conner, J. K., Harding, A., Oppedisano, G., Saltzman, H., & Wadsworth, M. (1997). Responses to stress questionnaire: A measure of effortful and involuntary responses to stress during childhood and adolescence (Manual). Burlington: University of Vermont Press.Google Scholar
  27. Compas, B. E., Connor, J. K., Harding, A., Saltzman, H., & Wadsworth, M. (in press). Getting specific about coping: Effortful and involuntary responses to stress in development. In M. Lewis & D. Ramsey (Eds.), Stress and soothing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Compas, B. E., Connor, J., Osowiecki, D., & Welch, A. (1997). Effortful and involuntary responses to stress: Implications for coping with chronic stress. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.), Coping with chronic stress (pp. 105–132). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Compas, B. E., Forsythe, C. J., & Wagner, B. M. (1988a). Consistency and variability in casual attributions and coping with stress. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 305–320.Google Scholar
  30. Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., & Banez, G. A. (1992a). Coping with psychosocial stress: A developmental perspective. In B. N. Carpenter (Ed.), Personal coping: Theory, research, and application (pp. 47–63). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  31. Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., & Fondacaro, K. M. (1988b). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 405–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Compas, B. E., Orosan, P. G., & Grant, K. E. (1993). Adolescent stress and coping: Implications for psychopathology during adolescence [Special Issue: Stress and coping in adolescence]. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 331–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Compas, B. E., Worsham, N. L., & Ey, S. (1992b). Conceptual and developmental issues in children’s coping with stress. In A. M. L. Greca, L. J. Siegel, J. L. Wallander, & C. E. Walker (Eds.), Stress and coping in child health. Advances in pediatric psychology (pp. 7–24). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 43–77). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Coyne, J. C., & Gottlieb, B. H. (1996). The mismeasure of coping by checklist. Journal of Personality, 64, 959–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cummings, E. M. (1987). Coping with background anger in early childhood. Child Development, 58, 976–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cummings, E. M., & Cummings, J. L. (1988). A process-oriented approach to children’s coping with adults’ angry behavior. Developmental Review, 8, 296–321.Google Scholar
  38. Curry, S. L., & Russ, S. W. (1985). Identifying coping strategies in children [Special Issue: Childhood vulnerability: Families and life stress: I.]. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 61–69.Google Scholar
  39. Danvosky, M., Rapoff, M., & Houston, K. (1995, August). Development of Kansas Coping Inventory for Children: The Kancope. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Dise Lewis, J. E. (1988). The Life Events and Coping Inventory: An assessment of stress in children. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 484–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dubow, E. E, Roecker, C. E., & Donaldson, D. (1995, August). Cross-situational patterns in children’s coping with interparental conflict. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Dusek, J. B., & Danko, M. (1994). Adolescent coping styles and perceptions of parental child rearing. Journal of Adolescent Research, 9, 412–426.Google Scholar
  43. Ebata, A. T., & Moos, R. H. (1991). Coping and adjustment in distressed and healthy adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 33–54.Google Scholar
  44. Ebata, A. T., & Moos, R. H. (1994). Personal, situational, and contextual correlates of coping in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 99–125.Google Scholar
  45. Egan, M. A., Linney, J. A., & Forman, S. G. (1989, August). Development of a measure of behavioral coping skills for adolescents. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  46. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Guthrie, I. K. (1997). Coping with stress: The roles of regulation and development. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping with common life stressors: Linking theory, research, and interventions (pp. 41–70). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  47. Elwood, S. W. (1987). Stressor and coping responsive inventories for children. Psychological Reports, 60, 931–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. A. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fanshawe, J. P., & Burnett, P. C. (1991). Assessing school-related stressors and coping mechanisms in adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 92–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Filipp, S.-H., Klauer, T, & Ferring, D. (1993). Self-focused attention in the face of adversity and threat. In H. W. Krohne (Ed.), Attention and avoidance: Strategies in coping with aversiveness (pp. 267–295). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  51. Flavell, J. H. (1985). Cognitive development (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  52. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 219–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Forsythe, C. J., & Compas, B. E. (1987). Interaction of cognitive appraisals of stressful events and coping: Testing the goodness of fit hypothesis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 473–485.Google Scholar
  55. Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1991). Adolescent coping styles and strategies. Is there functional and dysfunctional coping? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 1, 35–43.Google Scholar
  56. Frydenberg, E., & Lewis, R. (1993). Boys play sport and girls turn to others: Age, gender and ethnicity as determinants of coping [Special Issue: Stress and coping in adolescence]. Journal of Adolescence, 16, 253–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gamble, W. C. (1994). Perceptions of controllability and other stressor event characteristics as determinants of coping among young adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 65–84.Google Scholar
  58. Glyshaw, K., Cohen, L. H., & Towbes, L. C. (1989). Coping strategies and psychological distress: Prospective analyses of early and middle adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 607–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Grossman, B. D., & Levy, P. S. (1974). A factor analytic study of coping behavior in preschool children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 124, 287–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Haan, N. (1977). Coping and defending, processes of self-environment organization. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. Haan, N. (1982). The assessment of coping, defense, and stress. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 254–269). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  62. Halstead, M., Johnson, S. B., & Cunningham, W. (1993). Measuring coping in adolescents: An application of the Ways of Coping Checklist. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 337–344.Google Scholar
  63. Herman Stahl, M. A., Stemmler, M., & Petersen, A. C. (1995). Approach and avoidant coping: Implications for adolescent mental health. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 649–665.Google Scholar
  64. Hoffer, M., & Thompson, M. G. (1986). The Thompson-Patterson Scale of Psychosocial Development: II. Investigation of its use in the assessment of preschool children. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 398–406.Google Scholar
  65. Hoffner, C. (1993). Children’s strategies for coping with stress. Blunting and monitoring. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 91–106.Google Scholar
  66. Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1987). Risk, resistance, and psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis with adults and children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Holahan, C. J., Moos, R. H., & Schaefer, J. A. (1996). Coping, stress resistance, and growth: Conceptualizing adaptive functioning. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 24–43). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Horn, J. (1967). On subjectivity in factor analysis. Educational and psychological measurement, 27, 811–820.Google Scholar
  69. Hyson, M. C. (1983). Going to the doctor: A developmental study of stress and coping. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 24, 247–259.Google Scholar
  70. Knapp, L. G., Stark, L. J., Kurkjian, J. A., & Spirito, A. (1991). Assessing coping in children and adolescents: Research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 309–334.Google Scholar
  71. Krantz, S. E., Clark, J., Pruyn, J. P., & Usher, M. (1985). Cognition and adjustment among children of separated or divorced parents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 61–77.Google Scholar
  72. Kurtz, L. (1994). Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 554–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 234–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Maccoby, E. E. (1983). Social-emotional development and response to stressors. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping and development in children (pp. 217–234). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  77. McCrae, R. R. (1984). Situational determinants of coping responses: Loss, threat, and challenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 919–928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McCubbin, H. I., Needle, R. H., & Wilson, M. (1985). Adolescent health risk behaviors: Family stress and adolescent coping as critical factors [Special Issue: The family and health care]. Family Relations Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies, 34, 51–62.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, S. M. (1987). Monitoring and blunting: Validation of a questionnaire to assess styles of information seeking under threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 345–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Miller, S. M., Roussi, R, Caputo, G. C., & Kruus, L. (1995). Patterns of children’s coping with an aversive dental treatment. Health Psychology, 14, 236–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller, S. M., Sherman, H. D., Combs, C., & Kruus, L. (1992). Patterns of children’s coping with short-term medical and dental stressors: Nature, implications, and future directions. In A. M. La Greca, L. J. Siegel, J. L. Wallander, & C. E. Walker (Eds.), Stress and coping in child health: Advances in pediatric psychology (pp. 157–190). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  82. Mooney, K. C., Graziano, A. M., & Katz, J. N. (1985). A factor analytic investigation of children’s nighttime fear and coping responses. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 146, 205–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Moos, R. H., & Billings, A. G. (1982). Conceptualizing and measuring coping resources and processes. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 212–230). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  84. Moos, R. H., & Schaefer, J. A. (1993). Coping resources and processes; Current concepts and measures. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 234–257). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  85. Mulaik, S. A. (1988). Confirmatory factor analysis. In J. R. Nesselroade & R. B. Cattell (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 259–288). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  86. Murphy, L. B. (1974). Coping, vulnerability, and resilience in childhood. In G. V. Coelho, D. A. Hamburg, & J. E. Adams (Eds.), Coping and adaptation (pp. 69–100). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  87. Murphy, L. B., & Moriarty, A. E. (1976). Vulnerability, coping and growth: From infancy to adolescence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1993). The effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed moods. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 561–570.Google Scholar
  89. Parker, J. D. A., & Endler, N. S. (1992). Coping with coping assessment: A critical review. European Journal of Personality, 6, 321–334.Google Scholar
  90. Patterson, J. M., & McCubbin, H. I. (1987a). Adolescent coping style and behaviors: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescence, 10, 163–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Patterson, J. M., & McCubbin, H. I. (1987b). A-COPE adolescent coping orientation for problem experiences. In H. I. McCubbin & A. I. Thompson (Eds.), Family assessment inventories for research and practice (pp. 226–243). Madison: University of Wiscons in Press.Google Scholar
  92. Pearlin, L. I. & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Peterson, L., Harbeck, C., Chaney, J., Farmer, J., & Thomas, A. M. (1990). Children’s coping with medical procedures: A conceptual overview and integration. Behavioral Assessment, 12, 197–212.Google Scholar
  94. Phelps, S. B., & Jarvis, P. A. (1994). Coping in adolescence: Empirical evidence for a theoretically based approach to assessing coping. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 359–371.Google Scholar
  95. Plancherai, B., & Bolognini, M. (1995). Coping and mental health in early adolescence [Special Issue: Adolescent research: A European perspective]. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 459–474.Google Scholar
  96. Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1987). Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin, 62, 122–138.Google Scholar
  97. Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Hamilton, J., & Nix, G. (1991). On the relationship between self-focused attention and psychological disorder: A critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 538–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Reid, G. J., Dubow, E. F., & Carey, T. C. (1995). Developmental and situational differences in coping among children and adolescents with diabetes. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 529–554.Google Scholar
  99. Reid, G. J., Dubow, E. F., Carey, T. C., & Dura, J. R. (1994). Contribution of coping to medical adjustment and treatment responsibility among children and adolescents with diabetes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Roosa, M. W., Gensheimer, L. K., Short, J., & Ayers, T. S. (1988, November). A preventive intervention for children in alcoholic families: Results of a pilot study. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  101. Rossman, B. R. (1992). School-age children’s perceptions of coping with distress: Strategies for emotion regulation and the moderation of adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 33, 1373–1397.Google Scholar
  102. Roth, S., & Cohen, L. J. (1986). Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress. American Psychologist, 41, 813–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J. R., & Snyder, S. S. (1982). Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.Google Scholar
  104. Rudolph, K. D., Dennig, M. D., & Weisz, J. R. (1995). Determinants and consequences of children’s coping in the medical setting: Conceptualization, review, and critique. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 328–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ryan, N. M. (1988). The stress-coping process in school-age children: Gaps in the knowledge needed for health promotion. Advances in Nursing Science, 11, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ryan, N. M. (1989). Stress-coping strategies identified from school age children’s perspective. Research in Nursing and Health, 12, 111–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryan-Wenger, N. M. (1990). Development and psychometric properties of the Schoolagers Coping Strategies Inventory. Nursing Research, 39, 344–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryan-Wenger, N. M. (1992). A taxonomy of children’s coping strategies: A step toward theory development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 256–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ryan-Wenger, N. M. (1994). Coping behavior in children: Methods of measurement for research and clinical practice. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 9, 183–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ryan-Wenger, N. M., & Copeland, S. G. (1994). Coping strategies used by black school-age children from low-income families. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 9, 33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sandler, I. N., Ayers, T. S., Bernzweig, J. A., Wampler, T. P., Harrison, R. H., & Lustig, J. L. (1990, August). Children coping with divorce-related stressful events. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  112. Sandler, I. N., Tein, J. Y., & West, S. G. (1994). Coping, stress, and the psychological symptoms of children of divorce: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Child Development, 65, 1744–1763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schwarzer, R., & Schwarzer, C. (1996). A critical survey of coping instruments. In M. Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 107–132). New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  114. Seiffge-Krenke, L, & Shulman, S. (1990). Coping style in adolescence: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21, 351–377.Google Scholar
  115. Shulman, S., Carlton Ford, S., Levian, R., & Hed, S. (1995). Coping styles of learning disabled adolescents and their parents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 281–294.Google Scholar
  116. Sipes, G., Rardin, M., & Fitzgerald, B. (1985). Adolescent recall of childhood fears and coping strategies. Psychological Reports, 57, 1215–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Skinner, E. A., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (1991). Coding manual for children’s coping in the domains of school and friendship. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester.Google Scholar
  118. Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1994). Coping during childhood and adolescence: A motivational perspective. In D. L. Featherman, R. M. Lerner, & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Lifespan development and behavior: Vol 12 (pp. 91–133). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  119. Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1977). Children’s coping in the academic domain. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping with common life stressors: Linking theory, research and interventions (pp. 387–422). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  120. Spirito, A., Stark, L. J., & Williams, C. (1988). Development of a brief coping checklist for use with pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13, 555–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Spivack, G., Platt, J. J., & Shure, M. B. (1976). The problem-solving approach to adjustment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  122. Stanton, A. L., Danoff Burg, S., Cameron, C. L., & Ellis, A. P. (1994). Coping through emotional approach: Problems of conceptualization and confounding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Stern, M., & Alvarez, A. (1992). Pregnant and parenting adolescents: A comparative analysis of coping response and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 469–493.Google Scholar
  124. Stone, A. A., Greenberg, M. A., Kennedy-Moore, E., & Newman, M. G. (1991). Self-report, situation-specific coping questionnaires: What are they measuring? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 648–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Stone, A. A., Helder, L., & Schneider, M. S. (1988). Coping with stressful events: Coping, dimensions and issues. In L. H. Cohen (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 182–210). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  126. Stone, A. A., & Kennedy-Moore, E. (1992). Assessing situational coping: Conceptual and methodological considerations. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Hostility, coping, and health (pp. 203–214). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  127. Stone, A. A., Kennedy-Moore, E., & Neale, J. M. (1995). Association between daily coping and end-of-day mood. Health Psychology, 14, 341–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Stone, A. A., Kennedy-Moore, E., Newman, M. G., Greenberg, M., & Neale, J. M. (1992). Conceptual and methodological issues in current coping assessments. In B. N. Carpenter (Ed.), Personal coping: Theory, research and application (pp. 15–29). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  129. Stone, A. A., & Neale, J. M. (1984). New measure of daily coping: Development and preliminary results. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 892–906.Google Scholar
  130. Stone, A. A., & Shiffman, S. (1992). Reflections on the intensive measurement of stress, coping, and mood, with an emphasis on daily measures. Psychology and Health, 7, 115–129.Google Scholar
  131. Suls, J., & Fletcher, B. (1985). The relative efficacy of avoidant and nonavoidant coping strategies: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 4, 249–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Swift, M., Masterpasqua, R, Cutler, P., Chapman, L., Frank, J., & Healey, K. (1990, August). Stress, coping and adjustment among young, inner-city adolescents. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  133. Tolan, P. H., Guerra, N. G., & Montaini-Klovdahl, L. R. (1997). Staying out of harm’s way: Coping and the development of inner-city children. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping with common life stressors: Linking theory, research, and interventions (pp. 453–479). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  134. Tolor, A., & Fehon, D. (1987). Coping with stress: A study of male adolescents’ coping strategies as related to adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2, 33–42.Google Scholar
  135. Waller, N. G., Tellegen, A., McDonald, R., & Lykken, D. (1996). Exploring nonlinear models in personality assessment: Development and preliminary validation of a negative emotionality scale. Journal of Personality, 64, 545–576.Google Scholar
  136. Weisz, J. R., Rothbaum, F. M., & Blackburn, T. C. (1984). Standing out and standing in: The psychology of control in America and Japan. American Psychologist, 39, 955–969.Google Scholar
  137. Wertlieb, D., Weigel, C., & Feldstein, M. (1987). Measuring children’s coping. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 548–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. White, R. (1974). Strategies of adaptation. In G. V. Coelho, D. Hamburg, & J. E. Adams (Eds.), Coping and adaptation (pp. 47–68). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  139. Whitesell, N. R., Robinson, N. S., & Harter, S. (1993). Coping with anger-provoking situations: Young adolescents’ theories of strategy use and effectiveness. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 521–545.Google Scholar
  140. Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, coping and tobacco and alcohol use in early adolescence. In S. Shiffman & T. A. Wills (Eds.), Coping and substance use (pp. 67–94). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  141. Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5, 503–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Wilson, B. J., Hoffner, C., & Cantor, J. (1987). Children’s perceptions of the effectiveness of techniques to reduce fear from mass media. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 8, 39–52.Google Scholar
  143. Wolchik, S. A., Beals, J., & Sandler, I. N. (1989). Mapping children’s support networks: Conceptual and methodological issues. In D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s social networks and social support (pp. 191–220). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  144. Zeidner, M. (1994). Personal and contextual determinants of coping and anxiety in an evaluative situation: A prospective study. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 899–918.Google Scholar
  145. Zeitlin, S. (1980). Assessing coping behavior. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50, 139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim S. Ayers
    • 1
  • Irwin N. Sandler
    • 1
  • Joan L. Twohey
  1. 1.Program for Prevention ResearchArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations