Advertisement

Children’s Perception of Physical Symptoms

The Example of Asthma
  • Simon Rietveld
  • Pier J. M. Prins
Part of the Advances in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ACCP, volume 20)

Abstract

Distinction between physiological changes and the conscious awareness of associated sensations and symptoms is a common phenomenon in health and disease. Throughout the chapter, the term sensation will be used to denote what subjects feel, whereas the term symptom will be used in association with a pathological condition.

Keywords

Lung Function Airway Obstruction Physical Symptom Sensory Information Subjective Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, L., Lane, R., Shea, S. A., Cockcroft, A., & Guz, A. (1985). Breathlessness during different forms of ventilatory stimulation: A study of mechanisms in normal subjects and respiratory patients. Clinical Science, 69, 663–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Urrows, S., & Higgins, P. (1992). Neuroticism and the pain-mood relation in rheumatoidarthritis: Insights from a prospective daily study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1980). Pain and pleasure: Alternative interpretations of identical stimulation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 207–212.Google Scholar
  4. Avia, M., & Kanfer, F. (1980). Coping with aversive stimulation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 73–81.Google Scholar
  5. Badoux, A., & Levy, D. A. (1994). Psychologic symptoms in asthma and chronic urticaria. Annals of Allergy, 72, 229–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagg, L. R., & Hughes, D. T. D. (1980). Diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate in asthmatics. European Journal of Respiratory Disease, 61, 298–302.Google Scholar
  7. Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1988). How to feel better when it feels bad: Children’s perspectives on coping with everyday stress. Developmental Psychology, 24, 247–253.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1990). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In K. L. Kaemingle & L. Sechrist (Eds.), The primary prevention of AIDS: Psychological approaches (pp. 128–141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Banzett, R. B., Lansing, R. W., Brown, R., Topulos, G. P., Yager, D., Stelle, S. M., Londoo, B., Loring, S. H., Reid, M. B., Adams, L., & Nations, C. S. (1990). “Air hunger” from increased PCO2 persists after complete neuromuscular block in humans. Respiratory Physiology, 81, 1–18.Google Scholar
  10. Banzett, R. B., Lansing, R. W., Reid, M. B., Adams, L., & Brown, R. (1989). “Air hunger” arising from increased PCO2 in mechanically ventilated quadriplegics. Respiratory Physiology, 76, 53–68.Google Scholar
  11. Barness, P. J. (1992). Poorly perceived asthma (Editorial). Thorax, 47, 408.Google Scholar
  12. Barness, P. J. (1994). Blunted perception and death from asthma (editorial comment). New England Journal of Medicine, 12, 1383–1384.Google Scholar
  13. Bass, C., & Gardner, W. (1985). Emotional influences on breathing and breathlessness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 599–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett, M. (1989). Children’s self-attribution of embarrassment. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 207–217.Google Scholar
  15. Bishop, G. (1987). Lay conceptions of physical symptoms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 127–146.Google Scholar
  16. Blitz, B., & Dinnerstein, A. (1977). Role of attentional focus in pain perception: Manipulation of response to noxious stimulation by instructions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 42–45.Google Scholar
  17. Bonnel, A. M., Mathiot, M. J., Jungas, B., & Grimaud, M. C. (1987). Breathing discomfort in asthma: Role of adaptation level. Bulletin Europeän de Physiopathology Respiratoire, 23, 23–29.Google Scholar
  18. Boulet, L. P., Deschesnes, F., Turcotte, H., & Gignac, F. (1991). Near fatal asthma, clinical and physiologic features, perception of broncho constriction and psychological profile. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 88, 838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boyce, W., Chesney, M., Alkon, A., Tschamm, J., Adams, S., Chesterman, B., Cohen, F, Kaiser, P., Folkman, S., & Wara, D. (1995). Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: Results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 411–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brooks, C. M., Richards, E. J., Bailey, W. C., Martin, B., Windsor, R. A., & Soong, S. J. (1989). Subjective symptomatology of asthma in an outpatient population. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 102–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burbach, D., & Peterson, L. (1986). Children’s concepts of physical illness: A review and critique of the cognitive developmental literature. Health Psychology, 15, 307–325.Google Scholar
  22. Burdon, J. G. W., Juniper, E. F., Killian, K. J., Hargreave, F E., & Campbell, E. J. M. (1982). The perception of breathlessness in asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 126, 825–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Burdon, J. G. W., Pain, M. C. F., Rubinfeld, A. R., & Nana, A. (1994). Chronic lung disease and the perception of breathlessness: Clinical perspective. European Respiratory Journal, 7, 1342–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burki, N. K., Mitchel, K., Chaudhary, B. A., Zechman, F. W., & Campbell, E. J. M. (1978). The ability of asthmatics to detect added resistive loads. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 117, 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Burnam, M. A., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1977). Cognitive labelling of physical symptoms. Boston: Eastern Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell, E. J. M., Godfrey, T. J. H., Clark, T. J. H., Freedman, S., & Norman, J. (1969). The effect of muscular paralysis induced by tubocurarine on the duration and sensation of breath-holding during hypercapnia. Clinical Science, 36, 323–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell, E. J. M., Robson, J. G., & Norman, J. (1967). The effect of muscular paralysis induced by tubocurarine on the duration and sensation of breath-holding. Clinical Science, 32, 425–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Campbell, J. D. (1975). Illness is a point of view: The development of children’s concepts of illness. Child Development, 46, 92–100.Google Scholar
  29. Carr, R. E., Lehrer, P. M., & Hochron, S. M. (1992). Panic symptoms in asthma and panic disorder: A preliminary test of the dyspnea-fear theory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Carswell, F. (1985). Thirty deaths from asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 60, 25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cherniack, N. S. (1987). The perception of changes in airflow resistance in normal subjects and patients with chronic airway obstruction. Chest, 2, 286–288.Google Scholar
  32. Cioffi, D. (1991). Beyond attentional strategies: A cognitive perceptual model of somatic interpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 25–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Colland, V. T. (1993). Learning to cope with asthma, a behavioral self-management program. Patient Education and Counseling, 22, 141–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1987). Neuroticism, somatic complaints and disease: Is the bark worse than the bite? Journal of Personality, 55, 299–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cote, J., LeBlanc, P., & Boulet, L. P. (1987). Perception of bronchospasm in normal and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 135, 231.Google Scholar
  36. Creer, T. L., & Gustafson, K. E. (1989). Psychological problems associated with drug therapy in childhood asthma. Pediatrics, 115, 850–855.Google Scholar
  37. Custrini, R. J., & Feldman, R. S. (1989). Children’s social competence and nonverbal encoding and decoding of emotions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 336–342.Google Scholar
  38. Dahme, B., Konig, R., Nussbaum, B., & Richter, R. (1991). Haben Asthmatiker defizite in der Symptomwahrnehmung? Psychotherapie: Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, 12, 465–500.Google Scholar
  39. Davis, D. I., & Offenkrantz, W. (1976). Is there a reciprocal relationship between symptoms and affect in asthma? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 163, 369–389.Google Scholar
  40. DeGood, D. E., Buckeelew, S. P., & Tait, R. C. (1985). Cognitive-somatic anxiety response patterning in chronic pain patients and non-patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 137–138.Google Scholar
  41. Dirks, J. F., & Schraa, J. C. (1983). Patient mislabelling of symptoms and rehospitalization in asthma. Journal of Asthma, 20, 43–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dirks, J. F., Schraa, J. C., & Robinson, S. K. (1982). Patients mislabelling lof symptoms: Implications for patient-physician communication and medical outcome. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 12, 15–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Easterling, D. V., & Leventhal, H. (1989). Contribution of concrete cognition to emotion: Neutral symptoms as elicitors of worry about cancer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 787–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ehlers, A., Margrat, J., Roth, W., Taylor, C., & Birbaumer, M. (1988). Anxiety induced by false heartrate feedback in patients with panic disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ergood, J., Epstein, L. H., Ackerman, M., & Fireman, P. (1985). Perception of expiratory flow by asthmatics and non-asthmatics during rest and exercise. Health Psychology, 4, 545–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fillingim, R. B., & Fine, M. A. (1986). The effects of internal versus external information processing on symptom perception in an exercise setting. Health Psychology, 5, 115–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fillingim, R. B., Roth, D. L., & Haley, W. E. (1988). The effects of distraction on the perception of exercise-induced symptoms. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33, 241–248.Google Scholar
  48. Fiske, S., & Linville, P. (1980). What does the schema concept buy us? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 543–557.Google Scholar
  49. Fitzpatrick, S. B., O’Donnell, R., Getson, P., Sanier, O. J. (1993). Medical students’ experiences with and perceptions of chronic illness prior to medical school. Medical Education, 27, 355–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Flor, H., & Turk, D. C. (1989). Psychophysiology of chronic pain: Do chronic pain patients exhibit symptom-specific psychophysiological responses? Psychological Bulletin, 105, 215–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Friedman, M. S. (1984). Psychological factors associated with pediatric asthma death: A review. Journal of Asthma, 21, 97–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fritz, G. K., Klein, R. B., & Overholser, J. C. (1990). Accuracy of symptom perception in childhood asthma. Developmental Behavior Pediatrics, 11, 69–72.Google Scholar
  53. Gannon, L. R. (1984). Awareness of internal cues and concordance among verbal, behavioral, and physiological systems in dysfunction. Psychological Reports, 54, 631–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gannon, L. R., & Haynes, S. N. (1986). Cognitive-physiological discordance as an etiological factor in psychophysiologic disorders. Advances in Behavioural Research and Therapy, 8, 223–226.Google Scholar
  55. Garden, G. M., & Ayres, J. G. (1993). Psychiatric and social aspects of brittle asthma. Thorax, 48, 501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gauthier, Y, Fortin, C., Drapeau, P., Breton, J., Gosselin, J., Quintal, L., Weisnagel, J., Tetreault, L., & Pinard, G. (1977). The mother-child relationship and the development of autonomy and self-assertion in young (14 to 30 months) asthmatic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 16, 109–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gottfried, S. B., Altose, M. D., Kelsen, S. G., & Cherniack, N. S. (1981). Perception of changes in airflow resistance in obstructive pulmonary disorders. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 124, 566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Green, D. M., & Swets, J. A. (1966). Signal detection theory and psychophysics. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Harbeck-Weber, C., & Peterson, L. (1996). Health-related disorders. In E. Mash & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child Psychopathology. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  60. Heim, E., Blaser, A., & Waidelich, E. (1972). Dyspnea: Psychophysiologic relationships. Psychosomatic Medicine, 34, 405–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Higgs, C. M. B., Richardson, R. B., Lea, D. A., Lewis, G. T. R., & Laszlo, G. (1986). Influence of the knowledge of peakflow on self assessment of asthma. Studies with a coded peak flow meter. Thorax, 41, 671–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hollaender, J., & Florin, I. (1983). Expressed emotion and airway conductance in children with bronchial asthma. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 307–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hollandsworth, J., Kirkland, R., Jones, G., Van Norman, L. R., & Glazesky, R. C. (1979). An analysis of the nature and effects of test anxiety: Cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 165–180.Google Scholar
  64. Hudgel, H. D., Cooperson, D. M., & Kinsman, R. A. (1982). Recognition of added resistive loads in asthma: The importance of behavioral styles. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 126, 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Isenberg, S. A., Lehrer, P. M., & Hochron, S. (1992). The effects of suggestion and emotional arousal on pulmonary function in asthma: A review and a hypothesis regarding vagal mediation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 192–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jahnson, J. E. (1973). Effects of accurate expectations about sensations on the sensory and distress components of pain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 261–275.Google Scholar
  67. Janson, C., Bjornsson, E., Hetta, J., & Boman, G. (1994). Anxiety and depression in relation to respiratory symptoms and asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 149, 930–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Janson-Bjerklie, S., & Clarke, E. (1982). The effects of biofeedback training on bronchial diameter in asthma. Clinical Techniques in Critical Care, 11, 200–207.Google Scholar
  69. Janson-Bjerklie, S., Kohlman-Carrieri, V. K., & Hudes, M. (1986). The sensations of pulmonary dyspnea. Nursing Research, 35, 154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Janson-Bjerklie, S., Ruma, S. S., Stulbarg, M., & Kohlman-Carrieri, V. K. (1987). Predictors of dyspnea intensity in asthma. Nursing Research, 36, 179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Johnson, J. H. (1973). Effects of accurate expectations about sensations on the sensory and distress components of pain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 261–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jones, P. W. (1992). Breathlessness perception in airways obstruction. European Respiratory Journal, 5, 1035–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jordan, M. K., & O’Grady, D. J. (1982). Children’s health beliefs and concepts: Implications for child health care. In P. Karoly, J. J. Steffen, & D. J. O’Grady (Eds.), Child health psychology, concepts and issues. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  74. Lehrer, P. M., Isenberg, S., & Hochron, S. M. (1993). Asthma and emotion. Journal of Asthma, 30(1), 5–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mas, R., Dahme, B., & Richter, R. (1992). Vergleich zweier unterschiedlicher Messmethoden zur Interozeption von Obstruktionen bei Asthmapatienten. Pneumologie, 5, 183–189.Google Scholar
  76. Matthews, A. (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 455–468.Google Scholar
  77. McFadden, E. R. (1975). Exertional dyspnoea and cough as preludes to acute attacks of bronchial asthma. New England Journal of Medicine, 292, 555–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McFadden, E. R., Kiser, R., & de Groot, W. J. (1973). Acute bronchial asthma: Relations between clinical and physiological manifestations. New England Journal of Medicine, 288, 221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McGrath, P. A. (1990). Pain assessment in children—a practical approach. Advances in Pain Research Therapy, 15, 4–27.Google Scholar
  80. Meyer, R., Kroner-Herwig, B., & Sporkel, H. (1990). The effect of exercise and induced expectations on visceral perception in asthmatic patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 445–460.Google Scholar
  81. Montserrat, J. M., Picado, C., Lloberas, P., Serra, J., Luengo, M., & Agusti-Vidal, A. (1988). Ability of asthmatics with and without respiratory arrest to detect added resistive loads. Journal of Asthma, 25, 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Oswald, N. C., Waller, R. E. & Drinkwater, J. (1970). Relationship between breathlessness and anxiety in asthma and bronchitis: A comparative study. British Medical Journal, 2, 14–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Peiffer, C., Marsac, J., & Lockhart, A. (1989). Chrono-biological study of the relationship between dyspnoea and airway obstruction in symptomatic asthmatic subjects. Clinical Science, 77, 237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pennebaker, J. W. (1982). The psychology of physical symptoms. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  85. Pennebaker, J. W., Burnam, M. A., Schaeffer, M. A., & Harper, D. C. (1977). Lack of control as a determinant of perceived physical symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 167–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pennebaker, J. W., & Hoover, C. W. (1984). Visceral perception versus visceral detection: Disentangling methods and assumptions. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 9, 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pennebaker, J. W., & Lightner, J. M. (1980). Competition of internal and external information in an exercise setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 165–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pennebaker, J. W., & Skelton, J. A. (1981). Selective monitoring of physical sensations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 213–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Perrin, J. M., MacLean, W. E., & Perrin, E. C. (1989). Parental perceptions of health status and psychologic adjustment of children with chronic asthma. Pediatrics, 83, 26–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Peterson, R. A., Kimmel, P. L., Sacks, C. R., Mesquita, M. L. (1991). Depression, perception of illness and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 21, 343–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Potter, P. C., & Roberts, M. C. (1984). Children’s perception of chronic illness, the role of disease, symptoms, cognitive development and information. Society of Pediatric Psychology, 50, 13–27.Google Scholar
  92. Pratter, M. R., & Barter, T. (1991). Dyspnea: Time to find the facts. Chest, 100, 1187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Quirk, F. H., & Jones, P. W. (1990). Patients’ perception of distress due to symptoms and effects of asthma on daily living and an investigation of possible influential factors. Clinical Science, 79, 17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rainville, P., Feine, J. S., Bushnell, M. C., & Duncan, G. H. (1992). A psychophysical comparison of sensory and affective responses to four modalities of experimental pain. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 9, 265–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rietveld, S. (1996a). Symptom perception and breathlessness in children with asthma. Doctoral dissertation, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  96. Rietveld, S. (1996b). Breathlessness in children with and without asthma during external airflow obstruction. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  97. Rietveld, S. (1997). Habituation to prolonged airflow obstruction. Journal of Asthma, 34(2), 133–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rietveld, S., & Brosschot, J. (1997). Determinants of discordance between objective and subjective symptoms of asthma. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.Google Scholar
  99. Rietveld, S., & Dooijes, E. H. (1996). Characteristics and diagnostic significance of wheezes during exercise-induced airway obstruction in children with asthma. Chest, 110(3), 624–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rietveld, S., Kolk, A. M. M., Colland, V. T, & Prins, P. J. M. (1996b). The influence of respiration sounds on breathlessness in children with asthma, a symptom perception approach. Health Psychology, 16.Google Scholar
  101. Rietveld, S., Kolk, A. M. M., & Prins, P. J. M. (1996c). The influence of lung function information on self-reports of dyspnoea by children with asthma. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 367–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rietveld, S., Kolk, A. M. M., Prins, P. J. M., & Van Beest, I. (1997). The influence of external stimulation on airflow detection by children with and without asthma. Psychology and Health, 12, 553–563.Google Scholar
  103. Rietveld, S., & Prins, P. J. M. (1996). The relationship between negative emotions and acute objective and subjective symptoms of childhood asthma. Psychological Medicine (in press).Google Scholar
  104. Rietveld, S., Prins, P. J. M., & Kolk, A. M. M. (1996d). The capacity of children with and without asthma to detect external resistive loads on breathing. Journal of Asthma, 33, 221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rubinfeld, A. R., & Pain, M. C. F. (1976). Perception of asthma. Lancet, 2, 882–884.Google Scholar
  106. Rubinfeld, A. R., & Pain, M. C. F. (1977). Conscious perception of bronchospasm as a protective phenomenon in asthma. Chest, 72, 154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rumbak, M. J., Kelso, T. M., Arheart, K. L., & Self, T. H. (1993). Perception of anxiety as a contributing factor of asthma: Indigent versus nonindigent. Journal of Asthma, 30, 165–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Silverglade, L., Tosi, D. J., Wise, P. S., & D’Costa, A. (1993). Irrational beliefs and emotionality in adolescents with and without bronchial asthma. Journal of General Psychology, 199–207.Google Scholar
  109. Silverman, B. A., Mayer, D., Sabinsky, R., Williams-Akita, A., Feldman, J., Schneider, A. T., & Chiaramonte, L. T. (1987). Training perception of airflow obstruction in asthmatics. Annals of Allergy, 59, 350–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Silverman, W. K., LaGreca, A. N., & Wasserstein, S. (1995). What do children worry about? Worries and their relation to anxiety. Child Development, 66, 671–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Simon, P. M., Schwartzstein, R. M., Weiss, J. W., Fencl, V., Teghtsoonian, M., & Weinberger, S. E. (1990). Distinguishable types of dyspnea in patients with shortness of breath. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 142, 1009–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Skelton, J. A., & Croyle, R. T. (1991). Mental representation in health and illness. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  113. Sly, P. D., Landau, L. L., & Weymouth, R. (1985). Home-recording of peak expiratory flow rates and perception of asthma. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 18, 479–482.Google Scholar
  114. Steiner, H., Higgs, C. M. B., Fritz, G. K., Lazlo, G., & Harvey, J. E. (1987). Defense style and the perception of asthma. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Steinberg, S., & Laird, J. D. (1989). Parent attributions of emotion to their children and the cues children use in perceiving their own emotions. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 179–191.Google Scholar
  116. Sterk, P. J., & Bell, E. H. (1989). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, the need for distinction between hypersensitivity and excessive airway narrowing. European Respiratory Journal, 2, 267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tack, S., Altose, M. D., & Cherniack, N. S. (1982). Effect of aging on the perception of resistive ventilatory loads. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 126, 463–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Teramoto, S. (1995). Chronic lung disease and the perception of breathlessness: Clinical perspective. European Respiratory Journal, 8, 338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tipper, S. P., Bourque, T. A., Anderson, S. H., & Brehat, J. C. (1989). Mechanisms of attention: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 48, 353–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Turcotte, H., Corbeil, F., & Boulet, L. (1990). Perceptions of dyspnoea during bronchoconstriction induced by antigen, exercise and histamine challenges. Thorax, 45, 914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vasey, M. W. (1993). Development and cognition in childhood anxiety: The example of worry. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in Clinical Child Psychology (Vol. 15, pp. 1–39). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  122. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 43, 465–498.Google Scholar
  123. Watson, D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Review, 96, 234–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Weinberger, N., & Bushneil, E. W. (1994). Young children’s knowledge about their senses: Perceptions and misconceptions. Child Study Journal, 24, 209–235.Google Scholar
  125. Weiss, J. H. (1966). Mood states associated with asthma in children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 10, 267–273.Google Scholar
  126. Williams, C. W., & Lees-Haley, P. R. (1993). Perceived toxic exposure: A review of four cognitive influences on the perception of illness. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 297–308.Google Scholar
  127. Wilson, R. C., & Jones, P. W. (1990). Influence of prior ventilatory experience on the estimation of breathlessness during exercise. Clinical Science, 78, 149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wilson, R. C., & Jones, P. W. (1991). Differentiation between the intensity of breathlessness and the distress it evokes in normal subjects during exercise. Clinical Science, 80, 65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wolkove, N., Dajozman, E., Coalacone, A., Kriesman, H., Peiffer, C., Toumi, M., Razzouk, H., Marsac, J., & Lockkhart, J. (1992). Relationship between spontaneous dyspnoea and liability of airways obstruction in asthma. Clinical Science, 82, 717–724.Google Scholar
  130. Yamamoto, H., Inaba, S., Nishimura, M., Kishi, F., & Kawakami, Y. (1978). Relationship between the ability to detect added resistance at rest and breathlessness during broncho-constriction in asthmatics. Respiration, 52, 42–48.Google Scholar
  131. Yellowlees, P. M., & Kalucy, R. S. (1990). Psychobiological aspects of asthma and the consequent research implications. Chest, 97, 628–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Yellowlees, P. M., & Ruffin, R. E. (1989). Psychological defenses and coping styles in patients following a life-threatening attack of asthma. Chest, 95(6), 1298–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Rietveld
    • 1
  • Pier J. M. Prins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations