Molecular, Structural and Functional Properties of Aeromonas S-Layers

  • Trevor J. Trust
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 252)


Aeromonas are a commonly isolated group of gram-negative bacteria belonging to the proposed family Aeromonadaceae (Colwell et al., 1986). Aeromonas taxonomy continues to evolve and is quite complex. At least 13 DNA hybridization groups have been described in the genus and in many cases these are difficult to differentiate biochemically (Janda, 1991; Lucchini and Altwegg, 1992). For practical purposes, aeromonads are considered to fall into two major phenotypic groups, the mesophilic motile aeromonads which include the validated species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas veronii biotypes veronii and sobria, and the non-motile Aeromonas salmonicida. The mesophilic aeromonads are widely distributed in the environment, and have long been associated with disease of poikilothermic animals. In fish they are typically isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic septicemia. They have also been increasingly associated with a variety of diseases of homeothermic animals. In humans, at least five proposed or validated Aeromonas spp. have been implicated in disease (Carnahan and Joseph, 1991; Janda and Kokka, 1991; Kokka et al., 1992). They are most commonly associated with diarrheal disease, but they can also cause wound infections, and in compromised individuals can cause serious systemic infections (Janda and Duffey, 1988; Janda, 1991).


Aeromonas Hydrophila vapA Gene Linear Epitope Aeromonas Salmonicida Trypsin Cleavage Site 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Karadaghi, S., Wang, D. N., and Hovmöller, S., 1988, Three-dimensional structure of the crystalline surface layer from Aeromonas hydrophila, J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 101: 92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belland, R. J., and Trust, T. J., 1985, Synthesis, export, and assembly of the A-layer of Aeromonas salmonicida analysed by transposon mutagenesis, J. Bacteriol. 163: 877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Belland, R. J., and Trust, T. J., 1987, Cloning of the gene for the surface protein array of Aeromonas salmonicida and evidence linking loss of expression with genetic deletion, J. Bacteriol. 169: 4086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Belland, R. J., and Trust, T. J., 1988, DNA:DNA reassociation analysis of Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Bacteriol. 170: 499.Google Scholar
  5. Bootsma, R., Fijan, N., and Blommaert, J., 1977, Isolation and preliminary identification of the causative agent of carp erythrodermatitis, Vet. Arch. 47: 291.Google Scholar
  6. Bullock, G. L., and Stuckey, H. M., 1975, Aeromonas salmonicida: detection of asymptomatically infected trout, Prog. Fish Cult. 37: 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carnahan, A. M., and Joseph, S. W., 1991, Aeromonas update - new species and global distribution, Experientia 47: 402.Google Scholar
  8. Chart, H., Shaw, D. H., Ishiguro, E. E., and Trust, T. J., 1984, Structural and immunochemical homogeneity of Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide, J. Bacteriol. 158: 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chu, S., Cavaignac, S., Feutrier, J., Phipps, B. M., Kostrzynska, M., Kay, W. W., and Trust, T. J., 1991, Structure of the tetragonal surface virulence array protein and gene of Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Biol. Chem. 266: 15258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chu, S., and Trust, T. J., 1993, Identification and characterization of an Aeromonas salmonicida gene which affects A-protein expression in Escherichia coli, in: “Advances in bacterial paracrystalline surface layers”, T.J. Beveridge, and S.F. Koval, eds., Plenum Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Colwell, R. R., MacDonell, M. T., and Ley, J. D., 1986, Proposal to recognise the family Aeromonadaceae fam. nov., Int. J. Syst. Bact. 36: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doig, P., Emödy, L, and Trust, T. J., 1992, Binding of laminin and fibronectin by the trypsin-resistant major structural domain of the crystalline virulence surface array protein of Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Biol Chem. 267: 43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dooley, J. S. G., Lallier, R., Shaw, D. H., and Trust, T. J., 1985, Electrophoretic and immunochemical analyses of the lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, J. Bacteriol. 164: 263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dooley, J. S. G., McCubbin, W. D., Kay, C. M., and Trust, T. J., 1988, Isolation and biochemical characterization of the S-layer protein from a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila, J. Bacteriol. 170: 2631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dooley, J. S. G., Engelhardt, H., Baumeister, W., Kay, W. W., and Trust, T. J., 1989, Three-dimensional structure of the surface layer from the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Bacteriol. 171: 190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gustafson, C. E., Thomas, C. J., and Trust, T. J., 1992, Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida from fish using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the virulence surface array protein gene, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 3816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ishiguro, E. E., Kay, W. W., Ainsworth, T., Chamberlain, J. B., Buckley, J. T., and Trust, T. J., 1981, Loss of virulence during culture of Aeromonas salmonicida at high temperature, J. Bacteriol 148: 333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Janda, J. M., 1991, Recent advances in the study of the taxonomy, pathogenicity, and infectious syndromes associated with the genus Aeromonas, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Janda, J. M., and Duffey, P. S., 1988, Mesophilic aeromonads in human disease: current taxonomy, laboratory identification, and infectious disease spectrum, Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Janda, J. M., and Kokka, R. P., 1991, The pathogenicity of Aeromonas strains relative to genospecies and phenospecies identification, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 90: 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Janda, J. M., Oshiro, L S., Abbott, S. L, and Duffey, P. S., 1987, Virulence markers of mesophilic aeromonads: association of the autoagglutination phenomenon with mouse pathogenicity and the presence of a peripheral cell-associated layer, Infect. Immun. 55: 3070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kay, W. W., Buckley, J. T., Ishiguro, E. E., Phipps, B. M., Monette, J. P. L, and Trust, T. J., 1981, Purification and disposition of a surface protein associated with virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Bacteriol. 147: 1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kay, W. W., Phipps, B. M., Ishiguro, E. E., and Trust, T. J., 1985, Porphyrin binding by the surface array virulence protein of Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Bacteriol. 164: 1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kokka, R. P., Vedros, N. A, and Janda, J. M., 1990, Electrophoretic analysis of the surface components of autoagglutinating surface array protein positive and surface array protein negative Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 2240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kokka, R. P., Vedros, N. A., and Janda, J. M., 1992, Immunochemical analysis and possible biological role of an Aeromonas hydrophila surface array protein in septicaemia, J. Gen. Microbiol. 138: 1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kokka, R. P., Lindquist, D., Abbott, S. L, and Janda, J. M., 1992, Structural and pathogenic properties of Aeromonas schubertii, Infect. Immun. 60: 2075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kostrzynska, M., Dooley, J. S. G., Shimojo, T., Sakata, T., and Trust, T. J., 1992, Antigenic diversity of the S layer proteins from pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria, J. Bacteriol. 174: 40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kyte, J., and Doolittle, R. F., 1982, A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein, J. Mol. Biol. 157: 105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lucchini, G. M., and Altwegg, M., 1992, rRNA gene restriction patterns as taxonomic tools for the genus Aeromonas, Int. J. Syst. Bacterio1. 42: 384.Google Scholar
  30. McCarthy, D. H., and Roberts, R. J., 1980, Furunculosis of fish - the present state of our knowledge, Adv. Aquatic MicrobioL 2: 293.Google Scholar
  31. Messner, P., and Sleytr, U. B., 1992, Crystalline bacterial cell-surface layers, Adv. Microbial Physiol. 33: 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mittal, K. R., Lalonde, G., Leblanc, D., Olivier, G., and Lallier, R., 1980, Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout: relation between virulence and surface characteristics, Can. J. Microbiol. 26: 1501.Google Scholar
  33. Munn, C. B., Ishiguro, E. E., Kay, W. W., and Trust, T. J., 1982, Role of surface components in serum resistance of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida, Infect. Immun. 36: 1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Munn, C. B., and Trust, T. J., 1983, Role of additional protein layer in virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida, in: “Fish Diseases, 4th Cooperative Programme of Research on Aquaculture Session”, ACUIGRUP, ed., EDITORA ATP, Madrid.Google Scholar
  35. Murray, R. G. E., Dooley, J. S. G., Whippey, P. W., and Trust, T. J., 1988, Structure of an S-layer on a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas hydrophila, J. Bacteriol. 170: 625.Google Scholar
  36. Noonan, B., Cavaignac, S., and Trust, T. J., 1993, Localization of genes resulting in periplasmic accumulation of the A-protein in Aeromonas salmonicida, in: “Advances in Bacterial Paracrystalline Surface Layers,” T. J. Beveridge and S. F. Koval, eds., Plenum Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Paterson, W. D., Douey, D., and Desautels, D., 1980a, Isolation and identification of an atypical Aeromonas salmonicida strain causing epizootic losses among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in a Nova Scotian hatchery, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 12: 2236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paterson, W. D., Douey, D., and Desautels, D., 1980b, Relationships between selected strains of typical and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Haemophilus piscium, Can. J. Microbiol. 26: 588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Phipps, B. M., and Kay, W. W., 1988, Immunoglobulin binding by the regular surface array Aeromonas salmonicida, J. Biol. Chem. 263: 9298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Phipps, B. M., Trust, T. J., Ishiguro, E. E., and Kay, W. W., 1983, Purification and characterization of the cell surface virulence A- protein from Aeromonas salmonicida, Biochemistry 22: 2934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Popoff, M., 1984, Genus III, Aeromonas Kluyver and Van Niel 1936, in: “Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology”, N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  42. Provencher, S. W., and Glöckner, J., 1981, Estimation of globular protein secondary structure from circular dichroism, Biochemistry 20: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sakazaki, R., and Shimada, T., 1984, 0-serogrouping for mesophilic Aeromonas strains, Japan. J. Med. Sci. 37: 247.Google Scholar
  44. Shotts, E. B. J., Talkington, F. D., Elliot, D. G., and McCarthy, D. H., 1980, Aetiology of an ulcerative disease in goldfish, Carassius auratus (L): characterization of the causative agent, J. Fish Dis. 3: 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stewart, M., Beveridge, T. J., and Trust, T. J., 1986, Two patterns in the Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer may reflect a structural transformation that alters permeability, J. Mol. Biol. 166: 120.Google Scholar
  46. Thomas, S., Austin, J. A., Cubbin, W. D. M., Kay, C. M., and Trust, T. J., 1992, Roles of structural domains in the formation, morphology and surface anchoring of tetragonal paracrystalline array of Aeromonas hydrophila: biochemical characterization of the major structural domain, J. Mol. Biol. 228: 652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trust, T. J., 1986, Pathogenesis of infectious diseases of fish. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 40: 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Trust, T. J., and Kay, W. W., 1992, S-layers in bacterial pathogenesis: the tetragonal paracrystalline surface protein arrays of Aeromonas as models, in: “Molecular Recognition in Host-Parasite Interactions”, T. K. Korhonen, T. Hovi, P. H. Makela, eds., Plenum Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Trust, T. J., Kay, W. W., and Ishiguro, E. E., 1983, Cell surface hydrophobicity and macrophage association of Aeromonas salmonicida, Cur. Microbiol. 9: 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Trust, T. J., Kostrzynska, M., Emödy, L, and Wadström, T., 1993, High affinity binding of the basement membrane protein collagen type-IV to the crystalline virulence surface protein array of Aeromonas salmonicida, Mol. Microbiol.,in press.Google Scholar
  51. Udey, L, and Fryer, J. L, 1978, Immunization of fish with bacterins of Aeromonas salmonicida, Mar. Fish. Rev. 40: 12.Google Scholar
  52. Van Alstine, J. M., Trust, T. J., and Brooks, D. E., 1986, Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor J. Trust
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology and Canadian Bacterial Diseases NetworkUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations