Advertisement

The Unique Chemical Formats and Biosynthetic Pathways of Methanogenic Surfaces

  • Helmut König
  • Evamarie Hartmann
  • Günther Bröckl
  • Uwe Kärcher
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 252)

Abstract

The third domain of life, the archaea (Woese et al., 1990), is divided into two main lineages: the methanogenic branch (euryarchaeota) and the branch of extreme thermophilic sulfur metabolizing bacteria (crenarchaeota). The methanogens were not only the first archaea detected by microbiologists, but they also represent the largest group within the archaeal domain. A common feature, which distinguishes the methanogens from all other procaryotes, is the production of methane (Balch et al., 1979). Sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA and other biochemical and molecular features show that methanogens are not a phylogenetically homogeneous group. They do not possess a common cell wall polymer, but rather diverse cell envelope types are found (Table 1; Kandler and König, 1985; König, 1988). All methanogens lack murein, the common eubacterial cell wall polymer.

Keywords

Cell Wall Polymer Glutamic Acid Residue Glycan Chain Methanosarcina Barkeri Halobacterium Salinarium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, E., Brisson, J.-R., Messner, P., and Sleytr, U. B., 1991, Chemical characterization of the regularly arranged surface layer glycoprotein of Bacillus alvei CCM2051, Biochem. Cell Biol. 69: 72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balch, W.E., Fox, G.E., Magrum, L.J., Woese,C.R., and Wolfe, R.S., 1979, Methano- gens: Reevaluation of a unique biological group, Microbiol. Rev. 43: 260.Google Scholar
  3. Bröckl, G., Behr, M., Fabry, S., Hensel, R., Kaudewitz, H., Biendl, E., and König, H., 1991, Analysis and nucleotide sequence of the genes encoding the surface-layer glycoproteins of the hyperthermophilic methanogens Methanothermus fervidus and Methanothermus sociabilis, Eur. J. Biochem. 199: 147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Formanek, H., 1985, Three-dimensional models of the carbohydrate moieties of murein and pseudomurein, Z. Naturforsch. 40c: 555.Google Scholar
  5. Hartmann, E., and König, H., 1989, Uridine and dolichyl diphosphate activated oligosaccharide intermediates are involved in the biosynthesis of the surface layer glycoprotein of Methanothermus fervidus, Arch. Microbiol. 151: 274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hartmann, E., and König, H., 1990, Comparison of the biosynthesis of the methanobacterial pseudomurein and the eubacterial murein, Naturwissenschaften 77: 472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hartmann, E., and König, H., 1991, Nucleotide activated oligosaccharides are intermediates of the cell wall polysaccharide of Methanosarcina barkeri, Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 372: 971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kandler, O. and König, H., 1985, Cell envelopes of archaebacteria, in: “The Bacteria. A Treatise on Structure and Function, Vol. VIII, Archaebacteria”, pp. 413–457, C. R. Woese and R. S. Wolfe, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. König, H., 1988, Archaeobacterial cell envelopes, Can. J. Microbiol. 34: 395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kreisl, P., and Kandler, 0., 1986, Chemical structure of the cell wall polymer of Methanosarcina, Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 7: 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kurr, M., Huber, R., König, H., Jannasch, H.W., Fricke, H., Trincone, A., Kristjansson, J.K., and Stetter, KO., 1991, Methanopyrus kandleri, gen. nov. and sp. nov. represents a novel group of hyperthermophilic methanogens, growing at 110°C, Arch. Microbiol. 156: 239.Google Scholar
  12. Lechner, J., and Wieland, F., 1989, Structure and biosynthesis of prokaryotic glycoproteins, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58: 173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leps, B., Labischinski, H., Barnickel, G., Bradaczek, H., and Giesbrecht, P., 1984, A new proposal for the primary and secondary structure of the glycan moiety of pseudomurein, Eur. J. Biochem. 144: 279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nußer, E., Hartmann, E., Allmeier, H., König, H., Paul, G. and Stetter, K.O., 1988, A glycoprotein surface layer covers the pseudomurein sacculus of the extreme thermohile Methanothermus fervidus, in: “Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers” U. B. Sleytr, P. Messner, D. Pum, and M. Sara, eds., pp. 21–25, Springer Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Róden. L., 1970, Biosynthesis of acidic glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides), in: “Metabolic Conjugation and Metabolic Hydrolysis”, W. H. Fishman, ed., Vol. 2, pp. 345–442, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Rogers, H.J., Perkins, H.R., and Ward, J.B., 1980, “Microbial Cell Walls and Membranes”, Chapman & Hall, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sharon, N., 1986, Nomenclature of glycoproteins, glycopeptides and peptidoglycans, Eur. J. Biochem. 159: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sumper, M., 1987, Halobacterial glycoprotein biosynthesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 906: 69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tipper, D.J. and Wright, A., 1979, Structure and biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls, in: “The Bacteria: A Treatise on Structure and Function”, I. C. Gunsalus, J. R. Sokatch, and L. N. Ornston, eds., Vol. 7, pp. 291–426, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Woese, C.R., Kandler, O., and Wheelis, M.L., 1990, Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 4576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wright, A., and Tipper, D.J., 1979, The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, in: “The Bacteria: A Treatise on Structure and Function”, I.C. Gunsalus, J. R. Sokatch, L. N. Ornston, eds., Vol. 7, pp. 427–485, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut König
    • 1
  • Evamarie Hartmann
    • 1
  • Günther Bröckl
    • 1
  • Uwe Kärcher
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied MicrobiologyUniversity of UlmUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations